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” Asia ” di Tiziano Terzani

I mille volti di un continente immenso, fra culture secolari e un futuro che è già cominciato

Longanesi & C.

Si legge a pagina 165: (…) ” A questa gente i chilometri non dicono nulla ‘, mi spiega lo studente universitario che mi fa da guida e da interprete. ‘ È gente antica, anche se vive accanto a una strada moderna ‘ “.

Nel ª Tiziano Terzani è stato attribuito il prestigioso ” Premio Luigi Berzini all ‘ inviato speciale “.

” Piazza San Sepolcro ” di Gianni Simoni ,un indagine del commissario Lucchesi

Gianni Simoni, ex magistrato, ha condotto quale giudice istruttore indagini in materia di criminalità organizzata, di eversione nera e di terrorismo. Presso Garzanti ha pubblicato il caffè di Sindona , in collaborazione con Giuliano Turone.

Per Tea è autore delle indagini del commissario Miceli e dell’ ex giudice PetriE della serie che vede protagonista il commissario Lucchesi.

In copertina Mohamed Itani / Arcangels Images.

Figura di zuavo, Arles, giugno 1988, New York collezione Lasker

” Oggi ho terminato una tela 55 × 65 , è un ponte levatoio sul quale passa un calesse, che si profila su un cielo azzurro; ….”

Lettera n°469 Vincent van Gogh al fratello Theo.

Vincent van Gogh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search“Van Gogh” redirects here. For other uses, see Van Gogh (disambiguation) and Vincent van Gogh (disambiguation).

Vincent van Gogh
Self-Portrait, 1887, Art Institute of Chicago
BornVincent Willem van Gogh
30 March 1853
Zundert, Netherlands
Died29 July 1890 (aged 37)
Auvers-sur-Oise, France
Cause of deathSuicide by gunshot
Resting placeCimetière d’Auvers-sur-Oise, France
49°04′31″N 2°10′44″E
EducationAnton Mauve
Known forPainting, drawing
Notable workSorrow (1882)
The Potato Eaters (1885)
Sunflowers (1887)
Bedroom in Arles (1888)
The Starry Night (1889)
Portrait of Dr. Gachet (1890)
Wheatfield with Crows (1890)

Sunflowers (F.458), repetition of the 4th version (yellow background), August 1889.[1]Van Gogh Museum, AmsterdamWheatfield with Crows, 1890. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsənt ˈʋɪləm vɑŋ ˈɣɔx] (listen);[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade, he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of which date from the last two years of his life. They include landscapesstill lifesportraits and self-portraits, and are characterised by bold colours and dramatic, impulsive and expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. He was not commercially successful, and his suicide at 37 came after years of mental illness, depression and poverty.

Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet, and thoughtful. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned to religion and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886, he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. His paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include series of olive treeswheat fields and sunflowers.

Van Gogh suffered from psychotic episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly and drank heavily. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor when, in a rage, he severed part of his own left ear. He spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came under the care of the homeopathic doctor Paul Gachet. His depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a Lefaucheux revolver.[6] He died from his injuries two days later.

Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and he was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide and exists in the public imagination as a misunderstood genius, the artist “where discourses on madness and creativity converge”.[7] His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his painting style came to be incorporated by the Fauves and German Expressionists. He attained widespread critical, commercial and popular success over the ensuing decades, and he is remembered as an important but tragic painter, whose troubled personality typifies the romantic ideal of the tortured artist. Today, Van Gogh’s works are among the world’s most expensive paintings to have ever sold, and his legacy is honoured by a museum in his name, the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, which holds the world’s largest collection of his paintings and drawings.



See also: The Letters of Vincent van Gogh

The most comprehensive primary source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo. Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincent’s thoughts and theories of art, are recorded in the hundreds of letters they exchanged from 1872 until 1890.[8] Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support as well as access to influential people on the contemporary art scene.[9]

Head shot photo of the artist as a clean-shaven young man. He has thick, ill-kept, wavy hair, a high forehead, and deep-set eyes with a wary, watchful expression.
Head shot photo of a young man, similar in appearance to his brother, but neat, well-groomed and calm.

Vincent van Gogh in 1873, when he worked at the Goupil & Cie gallery in The Hague;[10]Theo (pictured right, in 1878) was a life-long supporter and friend to his brother.

Theo kept all of Vincent’s letters to him;[11] Vincent kept few of the letters he received. After both had died, Theo’s widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913; the majority were published in 1914.[12][13] Vincent’s letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a “diary-like intimacy”,[9] and read in parts like autobiography.[9] The translator Arnold Pomerans wrote that their publication adds a “fresh dimension to the understanding of Van Gogh’s artistic achievement, an understanding granted to us by virtually no other painter”.[14]

There are more than 600 letters from Vincent to Theo and around 40 from Theo to Vincent. There are 22 to his sister Wil, 58 to the painter Anthon van Rappard, 22 to Émile Bernard as well as individual letters to Paul SignacPaul Gauguin and the critic Albert Aurier. Some are illustrated with sketches.[9] Many are undated, but art historians have been able to place most in chronological order. Problems in transcription and dating remain, mainly with those posted from Arles. While there Vincent wrote around 200 letters in Dutch, French and English.[15] There is a gap in the record when he lived in Paris as the brothers lived together and had no need to correspond.[16]


Main article: Vincent van Gogh chronology

Early years

See also: Van Gogh’s family in his art

Vincent Willem van Gogh was born on 30 March 1853 into a Dutch Reformed Church family in Groot-Zundert, in the predominantly Catholic province of North Brabant in the Netherlands.[17] He was the oldest surviving child of Theodorus van Gogh, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Van Gogh was given the name of his grandfather and of a brother stillborn exactly a year before his birth.[note 2] Vincent was a common name in the Van Gogh family: his grandfather, Vincent (1789–1874), who received a degree in theology at the University of Leiden in 1811, had six sons, three of whom became art dealers. This Vincent may have been named after his own great-uncle, a sculptor (1729–1802).[19]

Van Gogh’s mother came from a prosperous family in The Hague,[20] and his father was the youngest son of a minister.[21] The two met when Anna’s younger sister, Cornelia, married Theodorus’s older brother Vincent (Cent). Van Gogh’s parents married in May 1851 and moved to Zundert.[22] His brother Theo was born on 1 May 1857. There was another brother, Cor, and three sisters: Elisabeth, Anna, and Willemina (known as “Wil”). In later life Van Gogh remained in touch only with Willemina and Theo.[23] Van Gogh’s mother was a rigid and religious woman who emphasised the importance of family to the point of claustrophobia for those around her.[24] Theodorus’s salary was modest, but the Church supplied the family with a house, a maid, two cooks, a gardener, a carriage and horse, and Anna instilled in the children a duty to uphold the family’s high social position.[25]

Van Gogh was a serious and thoughtful child.[26] He was taught at home by his mother and a governess and in 1860 was sent to the village school. In 1864, he was placed in a boarding school at Zevenbergen,[27] where he felt abandoned, and he campaigned to come home. Instead, in 1866 his parents sent him to the middle school in Tilburg, where he was deeply unhappy.[28] His interest in art began at a young age. He was encouraged to draw as a child by his mother,[29] and his early drawings are expressive,[27] but do not approach the intensity of his later work.[30] Constant Cornelis Huijsmans, who had been a successful artist in Paris, taught the students at Tilburg. His philosophy was to reject technique in favour of capturing the impressions of things, particularly nature or common objects. Van Gogh’s profound unhappiness seems to have overshadowed the lessons, which had little effect.[31] In March 1868, he abruptly returned home. He later wrote that his youth was “austere and cold, and sterile”.[32]

In July 1869 Van Gogh’s uncle Cent obtained a position for him at the art dealers Goupil & Cie in The Hague.[33] After completing his training in 1873, he was transferred to Goupil’s London branch on Southampton Street and took lodgings at 87 Hackford RoadStockwell.[34] This was a happy time for Van Gogh; he was successful at work and, at 20, was earning more than his father. Theo’s wife later remarked that this was the best year of Vincent’s life. He became infatuated with his landlady’s daughter, Eugénie Loyer, but was rejected after confessing his feelings; she was secretly engaged to a former lodger. He grew more isolated and religiously fervent. His father and uncle arranged a transfer to Paris in 1875, where he became resentful of issues such as the degree to which the firm commodified art, and he was dismissed a year later.[35]Van Gogh’s home in Cuesmes; while there he decided to become an artist

In April 1876 he returned to England to take unpaid work as a supply teacher in a small boarding school in Ramsgate. When the proprietor moved to Isleworth in Middlesex, Van Gogh went with him.[36][37] The arrangement did not work out and he left to become a Methodist minister’s assistant.[38] His parents had meanwhile moved to Etten;[39] in 1876 he returned home at Christmas for six months and took work at a bookshop in Dordrecht. He was unhappy in the position and spent his time doodling or translating passages from the Bible into English, French and German.[40] He immersed himself in religion and became increasingly pious and monastic.[41] According to his flatmate of the time, Paulus van Görlitz, Van Gogh ate frugally, avoiding meat.[42]

To support his religious conviction and his desire to become a pastor, in 1877 the family sent him to live with his uncle Johannes Stricker, a respected theologian, in Amsterdam.[43] Van Gogh prepared for the University of Amsterdam theology entrance examination;[44] he failed the exam and left his uncle’s house in July 1878. He undertook, but also failed, a three-month course at a Protestant missionary school in Laken, near Brussels.[45]

In January 1879 he took up a post as a missionary at Petit-Wasmes[46] in the coal-mining district of Borinage in Belgium. To show support for his impoverished congregation, he gave up his comfortable lodgings at a bakery to a homeless person and moved to a small hut, where he slept on straw.[47] His squalid living conditions did not endear him to church authorities, who dismissed him for “undermining the dignity of the priesthood”. He then walked the 75 kilometres (47 mi) to Brussels,[48] returned briefly to Cuesmes in the Borinage, but gave in to pressure from his parents to return home to Etten. He stayed there until around March 1880,[note 3] which caused concern and frustration for his parents. His father was especially frustrated and advised that his son should be committed to the lunatic asylum at Geel.[50][51][note 4]

Van Gogh returned to Cuesmes in August 1880, where he lodged with a miner until October.[53] He became interested in the people and scenes around him, and he recorded them in drawings after Theo’s suggestion that he take up art in earnest. He travelled to Brussels later in the year, to follow Theo’s recommendation that he study with the Dutch artist Willem Roelofs, who persuaded him – in spite of his dislike of formal schools of art – to attend the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. He registered at the Académie in November 1880, where he studied anatomy and the standard rules of modelling and perspective.[54]

Etten, Drenthe and The Hague

See also: Early works of Vincent van GoghKee Vos-Stricker with her son Jan c. 1879–80

Van Gogh returned to Etten in April 1881 for an extended stay with his parents.[55] He continued to draw, often using his neighbours as subjects. In August 1881, his recently widowed cousin, Cornelia “Kee” Vos-Stricker, daughter of his mother’s older sister Willemina and Johannes Stricker, arrived for a visit. He was thrilled and took long walks with her. Kee was seven years older than he was and had an eight-year-old son. Van Gogh surprised everyone by declaring his love to her and proposing marriage.[56] She refused with the words “No, nay, never” (“nooit, neen, nimmer“).[57] After Kee returned to Amsterdam, Van Gogh went to The Hague to try to sell paintings and to meet with his second cousin, Anton Mauve. Mauve was the successful artist Van Gogh longed to be.[58] Mauve invited him to return in a few months and suggested he spend the intervening time working in charcoal and pastels; Van Gogh went back to Etten and followed this advice.[58]

Late in November 1881, Van Gogh wrote a letter to Johannes Stricker, one which he described to Theo as an attack.[59] Within days he left for Amsterdam.[60] Kee would not meet him, and her parents wrote that his “persistence is disgusting“.[61] In despair, he held his left hand in the flame of a lamp, with the words: “Let me see her for as long as I can keep my hand in the flame.”[61][62] He did not recall the event well, but later assumed that his uncle had blown out the flame. Kee’s father made it clear that her refusal should be heeded and that the two would not marry, largely because of Van Gogh’s inability to support himself.[63]

Mauve took Van Gogh on as a student and introduced him to watercolour, which he worked on for the next month before returning home for Christmas.[64] He quarrelled with his father, refusing to attend church, and left for The Hague.[note 5][65] In January 1882, Mauve introduced him to painting in oil and lent him money to set up a studio.[66][67] Within a month Van Gogh and Mauve fell out, possibly over the viability of drawing from plaster casts.[68] Van Gogh could afford to hire only people from the street as models, a practice of which Mauve seems to have disapproved.[69] In June Van Gogh suffered a bout of gonorrhoea and spent three weeks in hospital.[70] Soon after, he first painted in oils,[71] bought with money borrowed from Theo. He liked the medium, and he spread the paint liberally, scraping from the canvas and working back with the brush. He wrote that he was surprised at how good the results were.[72]Rooftops, View from the Atelier The Hague, 1882, private collection

By March 1882, Mauve appeared to have gone cold towards Van Gogh, and he stopped replying to his letters.[73] He had learned of Van Gogh’s new domestic arrangement with an alcoholic prostitute, Clasina Maria “Sien” Hoornik (1850–1904), and her young daughter.[74] Van Gogh had met Sien towards the end of January 1882, when she had a five-year-old daughter and was pregnant. She had previously borne two children who died, but Van Gogh was unaware of this;[75] On 2 July, she gave birth to a baby boy, Willem.[76] When Van Gogh’s father discovered the details of their relationship, he put pressure on his son to abandon Sien and her two children. Vincent at first defied him,[77] and considered moving the family out of the city, but in late 1883, he left Sien and the children.[78]

Poverty may have pushed Sien back into prostitution; the home became less happy and Van Gogh may have felt family life was irreconcilable with his artistic development. Sien gave her daughter to her mother and baby Willem to her brother.[79] Willem remembered visiting Rotterdam when he was about 12, when an uncle tried to persuade Sien to marry to legitimise the child.[80] He believed Van Gogh was his father, but the timing of his birth makes this unlikely.[81] Sien drowned herself in the River Scheldt in 1904.[82]

In September 1883, Van Gogh moved to Drenthe in the northern Netherlands. In December, driven by loneliness, he went to live with his parents, then in Nuenen, North Brabant.[82]

Emerging artist

Nuenen and Antwerp (1883–1886)

See also: Peasant Character Studies (Van Gogh series)Still life paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Netherlands), and List of drawings by Vincent van GoghThe Potato Eaters, 1885. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

In Nuenen, Van Gogh focused on painting and drawing. Working outside and very quickly, he completed sketches and paintings of weavers and their cottages. Van Gogh also completed The Parsonage Garden at Nuenen, which was stolen from the Singer Laren in March 2020.[83][84] From August 1884, Margot Begemann, a neighbour’s daughter ten years his senior, joined him on his forays; she fell in love and he reciprocated, though less enthusiastically. They wanted to marry, but neither side of their families were in favour. Margot was distraught and took an overdose of strychnine, but survived after Van Gogh rushed her to a nearby hospital.[76] On 26 March 1885, his father died of a heart attack.[85]

Van Gogh painted several groups of still lifes in 1885.[86] During his two-year stay in Nuenen, he completed numerous drawings and watercolours and nearly 200 oil paintings. His palette consisted mainly of sombre earth tones, particularly dark brown, and showed no sign of the vivid colours that distinguished his later work.[87]

There was interest from a dealer in Paris early in 1885.[88] Theo asked Vincent if he had paintings ready to exhibit.[89] In May, Van Gogh responded with his first major work, The Potato Eaters, and a series of “peasant character studies” which were the culmination of several years of work.[90] When he complained that Theo was not making enough effort to sell his paintings in Paris, his brother responded that they were too dark and not in keeping with the bright style of Impressionism.[87] In August his work was publicly exhibited for the first time, in the shop windows of the dealer Leurs in The Hague. One of his young peasant sitters became pregnant in September 1885; Van Gogh was accused of forcing himself upon her, and the village priest forbade parishioners to model for him.[91]

He moved to Antwerp that November and rented a room above a paint dealer’s shop in the rue des Images (Lange Beeldekensstraat).[93] He lived in poverty and ate poorly, preferring to spend the money Theo sent on painting materials and models. Bread, coffee and tobacco became his staple diet. In February 1886, he wrote to Theo that he could only remember eating six hot meals since the previous May. His teeth became loose and painful.[94] In Antwerp he applied himself to the study of colour theory and spent time in museums—particularly studying the work of Peter Paul Rubens—and broadened his palette to include carminecobalt blue and emerald green. Van Gogh bought Japanese ukiyo-e woodcuts in the docklands, later incorporating elements of their style into the background of some of his paintings.[95] He was drinking heavily again,[96] and was hospitalised between February and March 1886,[97] when he was possibly also treated for syphilis.[98][note 6]

After his recovery, despite his antipathy towards academic teaching, he took the higher-level admission exams at the Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp and, in January 1886, matriculated in painting and drawing. He became ill and run down by overwork, poor diet and excessive smoking.[101] He started to attend drawing classes after plaster models at the Antwerp Academy on 18 January 1886. He quickly got into trouble with Charles Verlat, the director of the Academy and teacher of a painting class, because of his unconventional painting style. Van Gogh had also clashed with the instructor of the drawing class Franz Vinck. Van Gogh finally started to attend the drawing classes after antique plaster models given by Eugène Siberdt. Soon Siberdt and Van Gogh came into conflict when the latter did not comply with Siberdt’s requirement that drawings express the contour and concentrate on the line. When Van Gogh was required to draw the Venus of Milo during a drawing class, he produced the limbless, naked torso of a Flemish peasant woman. Siberdt regarded this as defiance against his artistic guidance and made corrections to Van Gogh’s drawing with his crayon so vigorously that he tore the paper. Van Gogh then flew into a violent rage and shouted at Siberdt: ‘You clearly do not know what a young woman is like, God damn it! A woman must have hips, buttocks, a pelvis in which she can carry a baby!’ According to some accounts this was the last time Van Gogh attended classes at the Academy and he left later for Paris.[102] On 31 March 1886, which was about a month after the confrontation with Siberdt, the teachers of the Academy decided that 17 students, including Van Gogh, had to repeat a year. The story that Van Gogh was expelled from the Academy by Siberdt is therefore unfounded.[103]

Paris (1886–1888)

See also: Japonaiserie (Van Gogh) and Still life paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Paris)Henri de Toulouse-LautrecPortrait of Vincent van Gogh, 1887, pastel drawing, Van Gogh Museum, AmsterdamJohn Peter Russell drew these five studies of Van Gogh a year or so after painting his 1886 portrait (studies, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney).[104]

Van Gogh moved to Paris in March 1886 where he shared Theo’s rue Laval apartment in Montmartre and studied at Fernand Cormon‘s studio. In June the brothers took a larger flat at 54 rue Lepic.[105] In Paris, Vincent painted portraits of friends and acquaintancesstill life paintings, views of Le Moulin de la Galettescenes in MontmartreAsnières and along the Seine. In 1885 in Antwerp he had become interested in Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock prints and had used them to decorate the walls of his studio; while in Paris he collected hundreds of them. He tried his hand at Japonaiserie, tracing a figure from a reproduction on the cover of the magazine Paris IllustreThe Courtesan or Oiran (1887), after Keisai Eisen, which he then graphically enlarged in a painting.[106]

After seeing the portrait of Adolphe Monticelli at the Galerie Delareybarette, Van Gogh adopted a brighter palette and a bolder attack, particularly in paintings such as his Seascape at Saintes-Maries (1888).[107][108] Two years later, Vincent and Theo paid for the publication of a book on Monticelli paintings, and Vincent bought some of Monticelli’s works to add to his collection.[109]

Van Gogh learned about Fernand Cormon‘s atelier from Theo.[110] He worked at the studio in April and May 1886,[111] where he frequented the circle of the Australian artist John Peter Russell, who painted his portrait in 1886.[112] Van Gogh also met fellow students Émile BernardLouis Anquetin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – who painted a portrait of him in pastel. They met at Julien “Père” Tanguy‘s paint shop,[111] (which was, at that time, the only place where Paul Cézanne‘s paintings were displayed). In 1886, two large exhibitions were staged there, showing Pointillism and Neo-impressionism for the first time and bringing attention to Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. Theo kept a stock of Impressionist paintings in his gallery on boulevard Montmartre, but Van Gogh was slow to acknowledge the new developments in art.[113]

Conflicts arose between the brothers. At the end of 1886 Theo found living with Vincent to be “almost unbearable”.[111] By early 1887, they were again at peace, and Vincent had moved to Asnières, a northwestern suburb of Paris, where he got to know Signac. He adopted elements of Pointillism, a technique in which a multitude of small coloured dots are applied to the canvas so that when seen from a distance they create an optical blend of hues. The style stresses the ability of complementary colours – including blue and orange – to form vibrant contrasts.[89][111]

While in Asnières Van Gogh painted parksrestaurants and the Seine, including Bridges across the Seine at Asnières. In November 1887, Theo and Vincent befriended Paul Gauguin who had just arrived in Paris.[114] Towards the end of the year, Vincent arranged an exhibition alongside Bernard, Anquetin, and probably Toulouse-Lautrec, at the Grand-Bouillon Restaurant du Chalet, 43 avenue de Clichy, Montmartre. In a contemporary account, Bernard wrote that the exhibition was ahead of anything else in Paris.[115] There, Bernard and Anquetin sold their first paintings, and Van Gogh exchanged work with Gauguin. Discussions on art, artists, and their social situations started during this exhibition, continued and expanded to include visitors to the show, like Camille Pissarro and his son Lucien, Signac and Seurat. In February 1888, feeling worn out from life in Paris, Van Gogh left, having painted more than 200 paintings during his two years there. Hours before his departure, accompanied by Theo, he paid his first and only visit to Seurat in his studio.[116]

Artistic breakthrough

Arles (1888–89)

See also: Décoration for the Yellow HouseLanglois Bridge at Arles, and Saintes-Maries (Van Gogh series)The Yellow House, 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

Ill from drink and suffering from smoker’s cough, in February 1888 Van Gogh sought refuge in Arles.[15] He seems to have moved with thoughts of founding an art colony. The Danish artist Christian Mourier-Petersen became his companion for two months, and, at first, Arles appeared exotic. In a letter, he described it as a foreign country: “The Zouaves, the brothels, the adorable little Arlésienne going to her First Communion, the priest in his surplice, who looks like a dangerous rhinoceros, the people drinking absinthe, all seem to me creatures from another world.”[117]

The time in Arles became one of Van Gogh’s more prolific periods: he completed 200 paintings and more than 100 drawings and watercolours.[118] He was enchanted by the local countryside and light; his works from this period are rich in yellow, ultramarine and mauve. His paintings include harvests, wheat fields and general rural landmarks from the area, including The Old Mill (1888), a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields.[119] This was one of seven canvases sent to Pont-Aven on 4 October 1888 in an exchange of works with Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard, Charles Laval and others.[119]

The portrayals of Arles are informed by Van Gogh’s Dutch upbringing; the patchworks of fields and avenues appear flat and lacking perspective, but excel in their use of colour.[120] His new-found appreciation is seen in the range and scope of his work. In March 1888 he painted landscapes using a gridded “perspective frame”; three of the works were shown at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. In April, he was visited by the American artist Dodge MacKnight, who was living nearby at Fontvieille.[121][122] On 1 May 1888, for 15 francs per month, he signed a lease for the eastern wing of the Yellow House at 2 place Lamartine. The rooms were unfurnished and had been uninhabited for months.[123]

On 7 May, Van Gogh moved from the Hôtel Carrel to the Café de la Gare,[124] having befriended the proprietors, Joseph and Marie Ginoux. The Yellow House had to be furnished before he could fully move in, but he was able to use it as a studio.[125] He wanted a gallery to display his work and started a series of paintings that eventually included Van Gogh’s Chair (1888), Bedroom in Arles (1888), The Night Café (1888), Café Terrace at Night (September 1888), Starry Night Over the Rhone (1888), and Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888), all intended for the decoration for the Yellow House.[126]

Van Gogh wrote that with The Night Café he tried “to express the idea that the café is a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime”.[127] When he visited Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in June, he gave lessons to a Zouave second lieutenant – Paul-Eugène Milliet[128] – and painted boats on the sea and the village.[129] MacKnight introduced Van Gogh to Eugène Boch, a Belgian painter who sometimes stayed in Fontvieille, and the two exchanged visits in July.[128]

  • The Sower with Setting Sun, 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
  • Fishing Boats on the Beach at Saintes-Maries, June 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
  • Bedroom in Arles, 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
  • The Old Mill, 1888. Albright–Knox Art GalleryBuffalo, New York
  • Ploughman in the Fields near Arles (1888), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Van Gogh never ceased drawing during any period in his artistic life.

Gauguin’s visit (1888)

See also: Sunflowers (Van Gogh series)Paul GauguinThe Painter of Sunflowers: Portrait of Vincent van Gogh, 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

When Gauguin agreed to visit Arles in 1888, Van Gogh hoped for friendship and the realisation of his idea of an artists’ collective. While waiting, in August he painted Sunflowers. When Boch visited again, Van Gogh painted a portrait of him, as well as the study The Poet Against a Starry Sky.[130][note 7]

In preparation for Gauguin’s visit, Van Gogh bought two beds on advice from the station’s postal supervisor Joseph Roulin, whose portrait he painted. On 17 September, he spent his first night in the still sparsely furnished Yellow House.[132] When Gauguin consented to work and live in Arles with him, Van Gogh started to work on the Décoration for the Yellow House, probably the most ambitious effort he ever undertook.[133] He completed two chair paintings: Van Gogh’s Chair and Gauguin’s Chair.[134]

After much pleading from Van Gogh, Gauguin arrived in Arles on 23 October and, in November, the two painted together. Gauguin depicted Van Gogh in his The Painter of Sunflowers; Van Gogh painted pictures from memory, following Gauguin’s suggestion. Among these “imaginative” paintings is Memory of the Garden at Etten.[135][note 8] Their first joint outdoor venture was at the Alyscamps, when they produced the pendants Les Alyscamps.[136] The single painting Gauguin completed during his visit was Van Gogh Painting Sunflowers.[137]

Van Gogh and Gauguin visited Montpellier in December 1888, where they saw works by Courbet and Delacroix in the Musée Fabre.[138] Their relationship began to deteriorate; Van Gogh admired Gauguin and wanted to be treated as his equal, but Gauguin was arrogant and domineering, which frustrated Van Gogh. They often quarrelled; Van Gogh increasingly feared that Gauguin was going to desert him, and the situation, which Van Gogh described as one of “excessive tension”, rapidly headed towards crisis point.[139]

Hospital in Arles (December 1888)

See also: Hospital in ArlesLocal newspaper report dated 30 December 1888 recording Van Gogh’s self-mutilation.[140]Portrait of Félix Rey, January 1889, Pushkin Museum; note written by Dr Rey for novelist Irving Stone with sketches of the damage to van Gogh’s ear

The exact sequence of events which led to Van Gogh’s mutilation of his ear is not known. Gauguin stated, 15 years later, that the night followed several instances of physically threatening behaviour.[141] Their relationship was complex, and Theo may have owed money to Gauguin, who was suspicious that the brothers were exploiting him financially.[142] It seems likely that Van Gogh had realised that Gauguin was planning to leave.[142] The following days saw heavy rain, leading to the two men being shut in the Yellow House.[143] Gauguin reported that Van Gogh followed when Gauguin left the house for a walk, and “rushed towards me, an open razor in his hand”.[143] This account is uncorroborated;[144] Gauguin was almost certainly absent from the Yellow House that night, most likely in a hotel.[143]

After the altercation with Gauguin, Van Gogh returned to his room, where he was assaulted by voices and severed his left ear with a razor (either wholly or in part; accounts differ),[note 9] causing severe bleeding.[145] He bandaged the wound, wrapped the ear in paper, and delivered the package to a woman at a brothel Van Gogh and Gauguin both frequented.[145] Van Gogh was found unconscious the next morning by a policeman and taken to hospital,[148][149] where Félix Rey, a young doctor still in training, treated him. The ear was delivered to the hospital, but Rey did not attempt to reattach it as too much time had passed.[143] Van Gogh researcher and art historian, Bernadette Murphy, discovered the true identity of the woman named Gabrielle who died in Arles at age 80 in 1952; and whose descendants still live just outside Arles. Gabrielle, known in her youth as “Gaby”, was a 17 year old cleaning girl at the brothel and other local establishments at the time Van Gogh presented her with his ear.[150][151][152]

Van Gogh had no recollection of the event, suggesting that he may have suffered an acute mental breakdown.[153] The hospital diagnosis was “acute mania with generalised delirium”,[154] and within a few days the local police ordered that he be placed in hospital care.[155][156] Gauguin immediately notified Theo, who on 24 December had proposed marriage to his old friend Andries Bonger‘s sister Johanna.[157] That evening Theo rushed to the station to board a night train to Arles. He arrived on Christmas Day and comforted Vincent, who seemed to be semi-lucid. That evening he left Arles for the return trip to Paris.[158]

During the first days of his treatment, Van Gogh repeatedly and unsuccessfully asked for Gauguin, who asked a policeman attending the case to “be kind enough, Monsieur, to awaken this man with great care, and if he asks for me tell him I have left for Paris; the sight of me might prove fatal for him.”[159] Gauguin fled Arles, never to see Van Gogh again. They continued to correspond and in 1890 Gauguin proposed they form a studio in Antwerp. Meanwhile, other visitors to the hospital included Marie Ginoux and Roulin.[160]

Despite a pessimistic diagnosis, Van Gogh recovered and returned to the Yellow House on 7 January 1889.[161] He spent the following month between hospital and home, suffering from hallucinations and delusions of poisoning.[162] In March, the police closed his house after a petition by 30 townspeople (including the Ginoux family) who described him as “le fou roux” (the redheaded madman);[155] Van Gogh returned to hospital. Paul Signac visited him twice in March;[163] in April Van Gogh moved into rooms owned by Dr Rey after floods damaged paintings in his own home.[164] Two months later, he left Arles and voluntarily entered an asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. Around this time, he wrote, “Sometimes moods of indescribable anguish, sometimes moments when the veil of time and fatality of circumstances seemed to be torn apart for an instant.”[165]

Van Gogh gave his 1889 Portrait of Doctor Félix Rey to Dr Rey. The physician was not fond of the painting and used it to repair a chicken coop, then gave it away.[166] In 2016, the portrait was housed at the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and estimated to be worth over $50 million.[167]

  • Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear and Pipe, 1889, private collection
  • The Courtyard of the Hospital at Arles, 1889, Oskar Reinhart Collection “Am Römerholz“, Winterthur, Switzerland
  • Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889, Courtauld Institute of Art, London
  • Ward in the Hospital in Arles, 1889, Oskar Reinhart Collection “Am Römerholz”, Winterthur, Switzerland

Saint-Rémy (May 1889 – May 1890)

Main article: Saint-Paul Asylum, Saint-Rémy (Van Gogh series)The Starry Night, June 1889. Museum of Modern Art, New York

Van Gogh entered the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole asylum on 8 May 1889, accompanied by his caregiver, Frédéric Salles, a Protestant clergyman. Saint-Paul was a former monastery in Saint-Rémy, located less than 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Arles, and it was run by a former naval doctor, Théophile Peyron. Van Gogh had two cells with barred windows, one of which he used as a studio.[168] The clinic and its garden became the main subjects of his paintings. He made several studies of the hospital’s interiors, such as Vestibule of the Asylum and Saint-Rémy (September 1889), and its gardens, such as Lilacs (May 1889). Some of his works from this time are characterised by swirls, such as The Starry Night. He was allowed short supervised walks, during which time he painted cypresses and olive trees, including Valley with Ploughman Seen from AboveOlive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background 1889, Cypresses 1889, Cornfield with Cypresses (1889), Country road in Provence by Night (1890). In September 1889 he produced two further versions of Bedroom in Arles.[169]

Limited access to life outside the clinic resulted in a shortage of subject matter. Van Gogh instead worked on interpretations of other artist’s paintings, such as Millet‘s The Sower and Noonday Rest, and variations on his own earlier work. Van Gogh was an admirer of the Realism of Jules BretonGustave Courbet and Millet,[170] and he compared his copies to a musician’s interpreting Beethoven.[171]

His Prisoners’ Round (after Gustave Doré) (1890) was painted after an engraving by Gustave Doré (1832–1883). Tralbaut suggests that the face of the prisoner in the centre of the painting looking towards the viewer is Van Gogh himself;[172] Jan Hulsker discounts this.[173]

Between February and April 1890, Van Gogh suffered a severe relapse. Depressed and unable to bring himself to write, he was still able to paint and draw a little during this time,[174] and he later wrote to Theo that he had made a few small canvases “from memory … reminisces of the North“.[175] Among these was Two Peasant Women Digging in a Snow-Covered Field at Sunset. Hulsker believes that this small group of paintings formed the nucleus of many drawings and study sheets depicting landscapes and figures that Van Gogh worked on during this time. He comments that this short period was the only time that Van Gogh’s illness had a significant effect on his work.[176] Van Gogh asked his mother and his brother to send him drawings and rough work he had done in the early 1880s so he could work on new paintings from his old sketches.[177] Belonging to this period is Sorrowing Old Man (“At Eternity’s Gate”), a colour study Hulsker describes as “another unmistakable remembrance of times long past”.[92][178] His late paintings show an artist at the height of his abilities, according to the art critic Robert Hughes, “longing for concision and grace”.[117]

Albert Aurier praised his work in the Mercure de France in January 1890 and described him as “a genius”.[179] In February, Van Gogh painted five versions of L’Arlésienne (Madame Ginoux), based on a charcoal sketch Gauguin had produced when she sat for both artists in November 1888.[180][note 10] Also in February, Van Gogh was invited by Les XX, a society of avant-garde painters in Brussels, to participate in their annual exhibition. At the opening dinner a Les XX member, Henry de Groux, insulted Van Gogh’s work. Toulouse-Lautrec demanded satisfaction, and Signac declared he would continue to fight for Van Gogh’s honour if Lautrec surrendered. De Groux apologised for the slight and left the group. Later, while Van Gogh’s exhibit was on display with the Artistes Indépendants in Paris, Claude Monet said that his work was the best in the show.[181] After the birth of his nephew, Van Gogh wrote, “I started right away to make a picture for him, to hang in their bedroom, branches of white almond blossom against a blue sky.”[182]

Auvers-sur-Oise (May–July 1890)

See also: Houses at AuversAuvers size 30 canvases, and Double-squares and SquaresWhite House at Night, 1890. Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, painted six weeks before the artist’s death

In May 1890, Van Gogh left the clinic in Saint-Rémy to move nearer to both Dr Paul Gachet in the Paris suburb of Auvers-sur-Oise and to Theo. Gachet was an amateur painter and had treated several other artists – Camille Pissarro had recommended him. Van Gogh’s first impression was that Gachet was “iller than I am, it seemed to me, or let’s say just as much.”[183]Tree Roots, July 1890, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

The painter Charles Daubigny moved to Auvers in 1861 and in turn drew other artists there, including Camille Corot and Honoré Daumier. In July 1890, Van Gogh completed two paintings of Daubigny’s Garden, one of which is likely his final work.[184]The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d’Orsay, Paris

During his last weeks at Saint-Rémy, his thoughts returned to “memories of the North“,[175] and several of the approximately 70 oils, painted during as many days in Auvers-sur-Oise, are reminiscent of northern scenes.[185] In June 1890, he painted several portraits of his doctor, including Portrait of Dr Gachet, and his only etching. In each the emphasis is on Gachet’s melancholic disposition.[186] There are other paintings which are probably unfinished, including Thatched Cottages by a Hill.[184]

In July, Van Gogh wrote that he had become absorbed “in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow”.[187] He had first become captivated by the fields in May, when the wheat was young and green. In July, he described to Theo “vast fields of wheat under turbulent skies”.[188]

He wrote that they represented his “sadness and extreme loneliness” and that the “canvases will tell you what I cannot say in words, that is, how healthy and invigorating I find the countryside”.[189] Wheatfield with Crows, although not his last oil work, is from July 1890 and Hulsker discusses it as being associated with “melancholy and extreme loneliness”.[190] Hulsker identifies seven oil paintings from Auvers that follow the completion of Wheatfield with Crows.[191]

Research published in 2020 by senior researchers at the museum Louis van Tilborgh and Teio Meedendorp, reviewing findings of Wouter van der Veen, the scientific director of the Institut Van Gogh, concluded that it was “highly plausible” that the exact location where Van Gogh’s final work Tree Roots was some 150 metres (490 ft) from the Auberge Ravoux inn where he was staying, where a stand of trees with a tangle of gnarled roots grew on a hillside. These trees with gnarled roots are shown in a postcard from 1900 to 1910. Mr Van der Veen believes Van Gogh may have been working on the painting just hours before his death.[192] [193]


Main articles: Death of Vincent van GoghAuberge Ravoux, and Vincent van Gogh’s healthArticle on Van Gogh’s death from L’Écho Pontoisien, 7 August 1890

On 27 July 1890, aged 37, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a 7mm Lefaucheux à broche revolver.[194][195] There were no witnesses and he died 30 hours after the incident.[166] The shooting may have taken place in the wheat field in which he had been painting, or a local barn.[196] The bullet was deflected by a rib and passed through his chest without doing apparent damage to internal organs – probably stopped by his spine. He was able to walk back to the Auberge Ravoux, where he was attended to by two doctors, but without a surgeon present the bullet could not be removed. The doctors tended to him as best they could, then left him alone in his room, smoking his pipe. The following morning Theo rushed to his brother’s side, finding him in good spirits. But within hours Vincent began to fail, suffering from an untreated infection resulting from the wound. He died in the early hours of 29 July. According to Theo, Vincent’s last words were: “The sadness will last forever”.[197][198][199][200]Vincent and Theo’s graves at Auvers-sur-Oise Cemetery

Van Gogh was buried on 30 July, in the municipal cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise. The funeral was attended by Theo van Gogh, Andries BongerCharles LavalLucien Pissarro, Émile Bernard, Julien Tanguy and Paul Gachet, among twenty family members, friends and locals. Theo had been ill, and his health began to decline further after his brother’s death. Weak and unable to come to terms with Vincent’s absence, he died on 25 January 1891 at Den Dolder and was buried in Utrecht.[201] In 1914, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger had Theo’s body exhumed and moved from Utrecht to be re-buried alongside Vincent’s at Auvers-sur-Oise.[202]

There have been numerous debates as to the nature of Van Gogh’s illness and its effect on his work, and many retrospective diagnoses have been proposed. The consensus is that Van Gogh had an episodic condition with periods of normal functioning.[203] Perry was the first to suggest bipolar disorder in 1947,[204] and this has been supported by the psychiatrists Hemphill and Blumer.[205][206] Biochemist Wilfred Arnold has countered that the symptoms are more consistent with acute intermittent porphyria, noting that the popular link between bipolar disorder and creativity might be spurious.[203] Temporal lobe epilepsy with bouts of depression has also been suggested.[206] Whatever the diagnosis, his condition was likely worsened by malnutrition, overwork, insomnia and alcohol.[206]

The gun Van Gogh was reputed to have used was rediscovered in 1965 and was auctioned, on 19 June 2019, as “the most famous weapon in art history”. The gun sold for €162,500 (£144,000; $182,000), almost three times more than expected.[207][208][209]

Style and works

Artistic development

Starry Night Over the Rhone, 1888. Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Van Gogh drew, and painted with watercolours while at school, but only a few examples survive and the authorship of some has been challenged.[210] When he took up art as an adult, he began at an elementary level. In early 1882, his uncle, Cornelis Marinus, owner of a well-known gallery of contemporary art in Amsterdam, asked for drawings of The Hague. Van Gogh’s work did not live up to expectations. Marinus offered a second commission, specifying the subject matter in detail, but was again disappointed with the result. Van Gogh persevered; he experimented with lighting in his studio using variable shutters and different drawing materials. For more than a year he worked on single figures – highly elaborate studies in black and white,[note 11] which at the time gained him only criticism. Later, they were recognised as early masterpieces.[212]

In August 1882 Theo gave Vincent money to buy materials for working en plein air. Vincent wrote that he could now “go on painting with new vigour”.[213] From early 1883 he worked on multi-figure compositions. He had some of them photographed, but when his brother remarked that they lacked liveliness and freshness, he destroyed them and turned to oil painting. Van Gogh turned to well-known Hague School artists like Weissenbruch and Blommers, and he received technical advice from them as well as from painters like De Bock and Van der Weele, both of the Hague School’s second generation.[214] When he moved to Nuenen after the period in Drenthe he began several large paintings but destroyed most of them. The Potato Eaters and its companion pieces are the only ones to have survived.[214] Following a visit to the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh wrote of his admiration for the quick, economical brushwork of the Dutch Masters, especially Rembrandt and Frans Hals.[215][note 12] He was aware that many of his faults were due to lack of experience and technical expertise,[214] so in November 1885 he travelled to Antwerp and later Paris to learn and develop his skills.[216]Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background, 1889. Museum of Modern Art, New York

Theo criticised The Potato Eaters for its dark palette, which he thought unsuitable for a modern style.[217] During Van Gogh’s stay in Paris between 1886 and 1887, he tried to master a new, lighter palette. His Portrait of Père Tanguy (1887) shows his success with the brighter palette and is evidence of an evolving personal style.[218] Charles Blanc‘s treatise on colour interested him greatly and led him to work with complementary colours. Van Gogh came to believe that the effect of colour went beyond the descriptive; he said that “colour expresses something in itself”.[219][220] According to Hughes, Van Gogh perceived colour as having a “psychological and moral weight”, as exemplified in the garish reds and greens of The Night Cafe, a work he wanted to “express the terrible passions of humanity”.[221] Yellow meant the most to him, because it symbolised emotional truth. He used yellow as a symbol for sunlight, life, and God.[222]

Van Gogh strove to be a painter of rural life and nature,[223] and during his first summer in Arles he used his new palette to paint landscapes and traditional rural life.[224] His belief that a power existed behind the natural led him to try to capture a sense of that power, or the essence of nature in his art, sometimes through the use of symbols.[225] His renditions of the sower, at first copied from Jean-François Millet, reflect Van Gogh’s religious beliefs: the sower as Christ sowing life beneath the hot sun.[226] These were themes and motifs he returned to often to rework and develop.[227] His paintings of flowers are filled with symbolism, but rather than use traditional Christian iconography he made up his own, where life is lived under the sun and work is an allegory of life.[228] In Arles, having gained confidence after painting spring blossoms and learning to capture bright sunlight, he was ready to paint The Sower.[219]Memory of the Garden at Etten, 1888. Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Van Gogh stayed within what he called the “guise of reality”,[229] and was critical of overly stylised works.[230] He wrote afterwards that the abstraction of Starry Night had gone too far and that reality had “receded too far in the background”.[230] Hughes describes it as a moment of extreme visionary ecstasy: the stars are in a great whirl, reminiscent of Hokusai‘s Great Wave, the movement in the heaven above is reflected by the movement of the cypress on the earth below, and the painter’s vision is “translated into a thick, emphatic plasma of paint”.[231]

Between 1885 and his death in 1890, Van Gogh appears to have been building an oeuvre,[232] a collection that reflected his personal vision and could be commercially successful. He was influenced by Blanc’s definition of style, that a true painting required optimal use of colour, perspective and brushstrokes. Van Gogh applied the word “purposeful” to paintings he thought he had mastered, as opposed to those he thought of as studies.[233] He painted many series of studies;[229] most of which were still lifes, many executed as colour experiments or as gifts to friends.[234] The work in Arles contributed considerably to his oeuvre: those he thought the most important from that time were The SowerNight CafeMemory of the Garden in Etten and Starry Night. With their broad brushstrokes, inventive perspectives, colours, contours and designs, these paintings represent the style he sought.[230]

Major series

Main article: List of works by Vincent van GoghL’Arlésienne: Madame Ginoux with Books, November 1888. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Van Gogh’s stylistic developments are usually linked to the periods he spent living in different places across Europe. He was inclined to immerse himself in local cultures and lighting conditions, although he maintained a highly individual visual outlook throughout. His evolution as an artist was slow, and he was aware of his painterly limitations. He moved home often, perhaps to expose himself to new visual stimuli, and through exposure develop his technical skill.[235] Art historian Melissa McQuillan believes the moves also reflect later stylistic changes, and that Van Gogh used the moves to avoid conflict, and as a coping mechanism for when the idealistic artist was faced with the realities of his then current situation.[236]


See also: Portraits by Vincent van GoghPaintings of Children (Van Gogh series), and Van Gogh’s family in his art

The portraits gave Van Gogh his best opportunity to earn. He believed they were “the only thing in painting that moves me deeply and that gives me a sense of the infinite.”[234][237] He wrote to his sister that he wished to paint portraits that would endure, and that he would use colour to capture their emotions and character rather than aiming for photographic realism.[238] Those closest to Van Gogh are mostly absent from his portraits; he rarely painted Theo, Van Rappard or Bernard. The portraits of his mother were from photographs.[239]

In December 1888 he painted La Berceuse – a figure that he thought as good as his sunflowers. It has a limited palette, varied brushstrokes and simple contours.[230] It appears to be a culmination of portraits of the Roulin family completed in Arles between November and December. The portraits show a shift in style from the fluid, restrained brushstrokes and even surface of Portrait of the Postman to the frenetic style, rough surface, broad brushstrokes and use of a palette knife in Madame Roulin with Baby.[240]


Main article: Self-portraits by Vincent van GoghSelf-Portrait, September 1887. Art Institute of Chicago

Van Gogh created more than 43 self-portraits between 1885 and 1889.[241][note 13] They were usually completed in series, such as those painted in Paris in mid-1887, and continued until shortly before his death.[242] Generally the portraits were studies, created during introspective periods when he was reluctant to mix with others, or when he lacked models, and so painted himself.[234][243]

The self-portraits reflect an unusually high degree of self-scrutiny.[244] Often they were intended to mark important periods in his life; for example, the mid-1887 Paris series were painted at the point where he became aware of Claude MonetPaul Cézanne and Signac.[245] In Self-Portrait with Grey Felt Hat, heavy strains of paint spread outwards across the canvas. It is one of his most renowned self-portraits of that period, “with its highly organized rhythmic brushstrokes, and the novel halo derived from the Neo-impressionist repertoire was what Van Gogh himself called a ‘purposeful’ canvas”.[246]

They contain a wide array of physiognomical representations.[241] Van Gogh’s mental and physical condition is usually apparent; he may appear unkempt, unshaven or with a neglected beard, with deeply sunken eyes, a weak jaw, or having lost teeth. Some show him with full lips, a long face or prominent skull, or sharpened, alert features. His hair may be the usual red, or at times ash coloured.[241]

Van Gogh’s gaze is seldom directed at the viewer. The portraits vary in intensity and colour, and in those painted after December 1888 especially, the vivid colours highlight the haggard pallor of his skin.[243] Some depict the artist with a beard, others without. He can be seen with bandages in portraits executed just after he mutilated his ear. In only a few does he depict himself as a painter.[241] Those painted in Saint-Rémy show the head from the right, the side opposite his damaged ear, as he painted himself reflected in his mirror.[247][248]

  • Self-Portrait with Grey Felt Hat, Winter 1887–88. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
  • Self-Portrait with Straw Hat, Paris, Winter 1887–88. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Self-Portrait, 1889. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. His Saint-Rémy self-portraits show his side with the unmutilated ear, as he saw himself in the mirror
  • Self-Portrait Without Beard, c. September 1889. This painting may have been Van Gogh’s last self-portrait. He gave it to his mother as a birthday gift.[249][250]


See also: Sunflowers (Van Gogh series) and Almond BlossomsStill Life: Vase with Fourteen Sunflowers, August 1888. National Gallery, London

Van Gogh painted several landscapes with flowers, including roses, lilacsirises, and sunflowers. Some reflect his interests in the language of colour, and also in Japanese ukiyo-e.[251] There are two series of dying sunflowers. The first was painted in Paris in 1887 and shows flowers lying on the ground. The second set was completed a year later in Arles and is of bouquets in a vase positioned in early morning light.[252] Both are built from thickly layered paintwork, which, according to the London National Gallery, evoke the “texture of the seed-heads”.[253]

In these series, Van Gogh was not preoccupied by his usual interest in filling his paintings with subjectivity and emotion; rather, the two series are intended to display his technical skill and working methods to Gauguin,[137] who was about to visit. The 1888 paintings were created during a rare period of optimism for the artist. Vincent wrote to Theo in August 1888: “I’m painting with the gusto of a Marseillais eating bouillabaisse, which won’t surprise you when it’s a question of painting large sunflowers … If I carry out this plan there’ll be a dozen or so panels. The whole thing will therefore be a symphony in blue and yellow. I work on it all these mornings, from sunrise. Because the flowers wilt quickly and it’s a matter of doing the whole thing in one go.”[254]

The sunflowers were painted to decorate the walls in anticipation of Gauguin’s visit, and Van Gogh placed individual works around the Yellow House’s guest room in Arles. Gauguin was deeply impressed and later acquired two of the Paris versions.[137] After Gauguin’s departure, Van Gogh imagined the two major versions of the sunflowers as wings of the Berceuse Triptych, and included them in his Les XX in Brussels exhibit. Today the major pieces of the series are among his best known, celebrated for the sickly connotations of the colour yellow and its tie-in with the Yellow House, the expressionism of the brush strokes, and their contrast against often dark backgrounds.[255]

Cypresses and olives

See also: Olive Trees (Van Gogh series)Road with Cypress and Star, May 1890, Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo

Fifteen canvases depict cypresses, a tree he became fascinated with in Arles.[257] He brought life to the trees, which were traditionally seen as emblematic of death.[225] The series of cypresses he began in Arles featured the trees in the distance, as windbreaks in fields; when he was at Saint-Rémy he brought them to the foreground.[258] Vincent wrote to Theo in May 1889: “Cypresses still preoccupy me, I should like to do something with them like my canvases of sunflowers”; he went on to say, “They are beautiful in line and proportion like an Egyptian obelisk.”[259]

In mid-1889, and at his sister Wil’s request, Van Gogh painted several smaller versions of Wheat Field with Cypresses.[260] The works are characterised by swirls and densely painted impasto, and include The Starry Night, in which cypresses dominate the foreground.[257] In addition to this, other notable works on cypresses include Cypresses (1889), Cypresses with Two Figures (1889–90), and Road with Cypress and Star (1890).[261]

During the last six or seven months of the year 1889, he had also created at least fifteen paintings of olive trees, a subject which he considered as demanding and compelling.[262] Among these works are Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background (1889), about which in a letter to his brother Van Gogh wrote, “At last I have a landscape with olives”.[261]While in Saint-Rémy, Van Gogh spent time outside the asylum, where he painted trees in the olive groves. In these works, natural life is rendered as gnarled and arthritic as if a personification of the natural world, which are, according to Hughes, filled with “a continuous field of energy of which nature is a manifestation”.[225]

  • Cypresses in Starry Night, a reed pen drawing executed by Van Gogh after the painting in 1889.
  • Cypresses and Two Women, 1890. Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands
  • Wheat Field with Cypresses, 1889. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Cypresses, 1889. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


See also: Flowering Orchards

The Flowering Orchards (also the Orchards in Blossom) are among the first groups of work completed after Van Gogh’s arrival in Arles in February 1888. The 14 paintings are optimistic, joyous and visually expressive of the burgeoning spring. They are delicately sensitive and unpopulated. He painted swiftly, and although he brought to this series a version of Impressionism, a strong sense of personal style began to emerge during this period. The transience of the blossoming trees, and the passing of the season, seemed to align with his sense of impermanence and belief in a new beginning in Arles. During the blossoming of the trees that spring, he found “a world of motifs that could not have been more Japanese”.[263] Vincent wrote to Theo on 21 April 1888 that he had 10 orchards and “one big [painting] of a cherry tree, which I’ve spoiled”.[264]

During this period Van Gogh mastered the use of light by subjugating shadows and painting the trees as if they are the source of light – almost in a sacred manner.[263] Early the following year he painted another smaller group of orchards, including View of Arles, Flowering Orchards.[265] Van Gogh was enthralled by the landscape and vegetation of the south of France, and often visited the farm gardens near Arles. In the vivid light of the Mediterranean climate his palette significantly brightened.[266]

  • Pink Peach Tree in Blossom (Reminiscence of Mauve), watercolour, March 1888. Kröller-Müller Museum
  • The Pink Orchard also Orchard with Blossoming Apricot Trees, March 1888. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
  • Orchard in Blossom, Bordered by Cypresses, April 1888. Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands
  • View of Arles, Flowering Orchards, 1889. Neue Pinakothek, Munich

Wheat fields

See also: Wheat Fields (Van Gogh series) and The Wheat FieldWheatfield Under Thunderclouds, 1890, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Van Gogh made several painting excursions during visits to the landscape around Arles. He made paintings of harvests, wheat fields and other rural landmarks of the area, including The Old Mill (1888); a good example of a picturesque structure bordering the wheat fields beyond.[119] At various points, Van Gogh painted the view from his window – at The Hague, Antwerp, and Paris. These works culminated in The Wheat Field series, which depicted the view from his cells in the asylum at Saint-Rémy.[267]

Many of the late paintings are sombre but essentially optimistic and, right up to the time of Van Gogh’s death, reflect his desire to return to lucid mental health. Yet some of his final works reflect his deepening concerns.[268][269] Writing in July 1890, from Auvers, Van Gogh said that he had become absorbed “in the immense plain against the hills, boundless as the sea, delicate yellow”.[187]

Van Gogh was captivated by the fields in May when the wheat was young and green. His Wheatfields at Auvers with White House shows a more subdued palette of yellows and blues, which creates a sense of idyllic harmony.[270]

About 10 July 1890, Van Gogh wrote to Theo of “vast fields of wheat under troubled skies”.[271] Wheatfield with Crows shows the artist’s state of mind in his final days; Hulsker describes the work as a “doom-filled painting with threatening skies and ill-omened crows”.[190] Its dark palette and heavy brushstrokes convey a sense of menace.[272]

Reputation and legacy

Main article: Posthumous fame of Vincent van GoghJohanna van Gogh-Bonger, 1889

After Van Gogh’s first exhibitions in the late 1880s, his reputation grew steadily among artists, art critics, dealers and collectors.[273] In 1887, André Antoine hung Van Gogh’s alongside works of Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, at the Théâtre Libre in Paris; some were acquired by Julien Tanguy.[274] In 1889, his work was described in the journal Le Moderniste Illustré by Albert Aurier as characterised by “fire, intensity, sunshine”.[275] Ten paintings were shown at the Société des Artistes Indépendants, in Brussels in January 1890.[276] French president Marie François Sadi Carnot was said to have been impressed by Van Gogh’s work.[277]

After Van Gogh’s death, memorial exhibitions were held in Brussels, Paris, The Hague and Antwerp. His work was shown in several high-profile exhibitions, including six works at Les XX; in 1891 there was a retrospective exhibition in Brussels.[276] In 1892, Octave Mirbeau wrote that Van Gogh’s suicide was an “infinitely sadder loss for art … even though the populace has not crowded to a magnificent funeral, and poor Vincent van Gogh, whose demise means the extinction of a beautiful flame of genius, has gone to his death as obscure and neglected as he lived.”[274]

Theo died in January 1891, removing Vincent’s most vocal and well-connected champion.[278] Theo’s widow Johanna van Gogh-Bonger was a Dutchwoman in her twenties who had not known either her husband or her brother-in-law very long and who suddenly had to take care of several hundreds of paintings, letters and drawings, as well as her infant son, Vincent Willem van Gogh.[273][note 14] Gauguin was not inclined to offer assistance in promoting Van Gogh’s reputation, and Johanna’s brother Andries Bonger also seemed lukewarm about his work.[273] Aurier, one of Van Gogh’s earliest supporters among the critics, died of typhoid fever in 1892 at the age of twenty-seven.[280]Painter on the Road to Tarascon, August 1888 (destroyed by fire in the Second World War)

In 1892, Émile Bernard organised a small solo show of Van Gogh’s paintings in Paris, and Julien Tanguy exhibited his Van Gogh paintings with several consigned from Johanna van Gogh-Bonger. In April 1894, the Durand-Ruel Gallery in Paris agreed to take 10 paintings on consignment from Van Gogh’s estate.[280] In 1896, the Fauvist painter Henri Matisse, then an unknown art student, visited John Russell on Belle Île off Brittany.[281][282] Russell had been a close friend of Van Gogh; he introduced Matisse to the Dutchman’s work, and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Influenced by Van Gogh, Matisse abandoned his earth-coloured palette for bright colours.[282][283]

In Paris in 1901, a large Van Gogh retrospective was held at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery, which excited André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, and contributed to the emergence of Fauvism.[280] Important group exhibitions took place with the Sonderbund artists in Cologne in 1912, the Armory Show, New York in 1913, and Berlin in 1914.[284] Henk Bremmer was instrumental in teaching and talking about Van Gogh,[285] and introduced Helene Kröller-Müller to Van Gogh’s art; she became an avid collector of his work.[286] The early figures in German Expressionism such as Emil Nolde acknowledged a debt to Van Gogh’s work.[287] Bremmer assisted Jacob Baart de la Faille, whose catalogue raisonné L’Oeuvre de Vincent van Gogh appeared in 1928.[288][note 15]

Van Gogh’s fame reached its first peak in Austria and Germany before World War I,[291] helped by the publication of his letters in three volumes in 1914.[292] His letters are expressive and literate, and have been described as among the foremost 19th-century writings of their kind.[9] These began a compelling mythology of Van Gogh as an intense and dedicated painter who suffered for his art and died young.[293] In 1934, the novelist Irving Stone wrote a biographical novel of Van Gogh’s life titled Lust for Life, based on Van Gogh’s letters to Theo.[294] This novel and the 1956 film further enhanced his fame, especially in the United States where Stone surmised only a few hundred people had heard of van Gogh prior to his surprise best-selling book.[295][296]Visitors viewing van Gogh’s The Starry Night in New York City’s Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)

In 1957, Francis Bacon based a series of paintings on reproductions of Van Gogh’s The Painter on the Road to Tarascon, the original of which was destroyed during the Second World War. Bacon was inspired by an image he described as “haunting”, and regarded Van Gogh as an alienated outsider, a position which resonated with him. Bacon identified with Van Gogh’s theories of art and quoted lines written to Theo: “[R]eal painters do not paint things as they are … [T]hey paint them as they themselves feel them to be.”[297]

Van Gogh’s works are among the world’s most expensive paintings. Those sold for over US$100 million (today’s equivalent) include Portrait of Dr Gachet,[298] Portrait of Joseph Roulin and Irises. The Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired a copy of Wheat Field with Cypresses in 1993 for US$57 million.[299] In 2015, L’Allée des Alyscamps sold for US$66.3 million at Sotheby’s, New York, exceeding its reserve of US$40 million.[300]

Van Gogh Museum

The Van Gogh Museum, AmsterdamMain article: Van Gogh Museum

Van Gogh’s nephew and namesake, Vincent Willem van Gogh (1890–1978),[301] inherited the estate after his mother’s death in 1925. During the early 1950s he arranged for the publication of a complete edition of the letters presented in four volumes and several languages. He then began negotiations with the Dutch government to subsidise a foundation to purchase and house the entire collection.[302] Theo’s son participated in planning the project in the hope that the works would be exhibited under the best possible conditions. The project began in 1963; architect Gerrit Rietveld was commissioned to design it, and after his death in 1964 Kisho Kurokawa took charge.[303] Work progressed throughout the 1960s, with 1972 as the target for its grand opening.[301]

The Van Gogh Museum opened in the Museumplein in Amsterdam in 1973.[304] It became the second most popular museum in the Netherlands, after the Rijksmuseum, regularly receiving more than 1.5 million visitors a year. In 2015 it had a record 1.9 million.[305] Eighty-five percent of the visitors come from other countries.[306]

” The Post ” di Steven Spielberg con Meryl Streep e Tom Hanks

The Post è un film del 2017 diretto da Steven Spielberg con protagonisti Meryl Streep e Tom Hanks.
La pellicola narra la vicenda della pubblicazione dei Pentagon Papers, documenti top secret del dipartimento della difesa degli Stati Uniti d’America, prima sul New York Times e poi sul Washington Post nel 1971.[1]

Vietnam, 1966: i soldati americani si trovano in una situazione estremamente precaria e risultano svantaggiati sul campo di battaglia. Questa fase di stasi è documentata dall’analista militare Daniel Ellsberg per conto del segretario della Difesa Robert McNamara. Sul volo di ritorno verso l’America, Ellsberg rivela a McNamara e al presidente Lyndon B. Johnson che, a suo parere, la situazione bellica in Vietnam è rimasta sostanzialmente invariata dall’inizio della guerra. Intervistato da numerosi giornalisti, McNamara tuttavia mente, dicendo che sono stati compiuti numerosi progressi e di essere estremamente fiducioso riguardo all’esito della guerra. In seguito Ellsberg, lavorando alla RAND Corporation e avendo accesso a svariato materiale riservato, decide di fotocopiare tutti i documenti top secret legati alla guerra del Vietnam, a partire dalla presidenza Truman, e di consegnarli al New York Times affinché li possano pubblicare.
Nel 1971 Katharine Graham, divenuta proprietaria del Post dopo la morte di suo padre e del marito, cerca di equilibrare al meglio la vita sociale con gli impegni lavorativi e con le difficoltà finanziarie che la costringono a quotare l’azienda in borsa. Oltre a ciò, le sue decisioni non sono talvolta tenute in considerazione dal membro del consiglio Arthur Parsons e dal caporedattore Ben Bradlee. In particolare quest’ultimo, insospettito da alcune voci, cerca di scoprire cosa abbia intenzione di pubblicare il New York Times; nel frattempo McNamara, amico di lunga data della Graham, le rivela che sarebbe stato pubblicato un articolo poco lusinghiero nei propri confronti sullo stesso giornale. Il 13 giugno 1971, quattro mesi dopo aver ricevuto i documenti, il New York Times ne inizia la pubblicazione: tutto ciò scatena nel paese un’ondata di proteste e un gigantesco scandalo, legato appunto ai Pentagon Papers. Il giornale riceve però l’ingiunzione di sospendere per un tempo limitato la pubblicazione, pena l’oltraggio alla corte.
Ben Bagdikian, assistente redattore al Post, capisce che Ellsberg è stato la fonte dello scandalo e lo rintraccia, al fine di ottenere lo stesso materiale dato precedentemente al New York Times; l’incontro ha successo e il giorno seguente un gruppo di giornalisti del Post si trova a casa di Bradlee per consultare e ordinare i numerosissimi documenti ottenuti. Essi hanno tuttavia solo otto ore affinché il quotidiano possa andare in stampa. I legali del giornale sconsigliano fortemente alla Graham di pubblicare i documenti: se infatti fossero stati ricevuti dal New York Times o comunque dalla loro stessa fonte, l’azione sarebbe stata classificata come oltraggio alla corte e ci sarebbero stati risvolti penali. D’altro canto, se l’operazione avesse avuto successo, il Post avrebbe estremamente aumentato la sua popolarità e sarebbe entrato nel novero dei grandi giornali americani. La notte del 17 giugno la Graham, seppur inizialmente incerta, decide comunque di rischiare e di pubblicare i documenti.
Il giorno seguente un rappresentante della Casa Bianca telefona al Post, chiedendo di sospendere la pubblicazione e di consegnare tutti i documenti legati al Vietnam in loro possesso. Poiché Bradlee rifiuta, l’uomo lo informa che lo citerà in giudizio. I membri del Post sono così convocati in tribunale insieme a quelli del New York Times, tuttavia la corte ingiunge solo a questi ultimi di sospendere le pubblicazioni, mentre non rilascia alcuna sanzione per il Post. Pochi giorni dopo cade la sentenza della Corte suprema, la quale, con un verdetto di 6 a 3, assolve il New York Times e il Post, motivando la decisione con il fatto che la stampa non è destinata a servire coloro che governano, bensì quelli che sono governati. Nel frattempo numerosi altri giornali, seguendo l’esempio del New York Times e del Post, iniziano anch’essi – come segno di solidarietà – la pubblicazione dei Pentagon Papers. Il presidente Richard Nixon, furibondo, ordina che ogni giornalista del Post venga bandito dalla Casa Bianca e da ogni evento a essa collegato.
Nella scena finale, ambientata un anno dopo, una guardia di sorveglianza scopre del nastro adesivo sulla porta di uno degli uffici della sede del comitato nazionale democratico, posta negli uffici Watergate: ciò è l’inizio dell’omonimo scandalo, che in seguito avrebbe costretto lo stesso Nixon all’impeachment e alle conseguenti dimissioni.

Diego Armando Maradona

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Diego Armando Maradona

Diego Armando Maradona
Maradona con il Napoli nel 1988
Nazionalità Argentina
Altezza165[1] cm
Peso70 kg
RuoloAllenatore (ex centrocampista)
Squadra Gimnasia La Plata
Ritirato25 ottobre 1997 – giocatore
1970-1976 Argentinos Juniors
Squadre di club1
1976-1981 Argentinos Juniors166 (116)
1981-1982 Boca Juniors40 (28)
1982-1984 Barcellona36 (22)
1984-1991 Napoli188 (81)
1992-1993 Siviglia26 (5)
1993-1994 Newell’s Old Boys5 (0)
1995-1997 Boca Juniors30 (7)
1977-1979 Argentina U-2024 (13)
1977-1994 Argentina91 (34)
Carriera da allenatore
1994 Textil Mandiyú
1995 Racing Club
2008-2010 Argentina
2011-2012 Al-Wasl
2017-2018 Fujairah
2018-2019 Dorados
2019- Gimnasia La Plata
 Campionato sudamericano Under-20
ArgentoUruguay 1979
 Mondiali di calcio Under-20
OroGiappone 1979
 Mondiali di calcio
OroMessico 1986
ArgentoItalia 1990
 Copa América
BronzoBrasile 1989
1 I due numeri indicano le presenze e le reti segnate, per le sole partite di campionato.
Il simbolo → indica un trasferimento in prestito.
Statistiche aggiornate al 16 maggio 2018
Modifica dati su Wikidata · Manuale

Diego Armando Maradona (Lanús30 ottobre 1960) è un allenatore di calciodirigente sportivo ed ex calciatore argentino, di ruolo centrocampista, tecnico del Gimnasia La Plata. È stato il capitano della nazionale argentina vincitrice del campionato del mondo 1986.

Soprannominato El Pibe de Oro (“il ragazzo d’oro”), è considerato uno dei più grandi calciatori di tutti i tempi, se non il migliore in assoluto.[2][3][4][5]

In una carriera da professionista più che ventennale ha militato nell’Argentinos Juniors, nel Boca Juniors, nel Barcellona, nel Napoli, nel Siviglia e nel Newell’s Old Boys. Con la nazionale argentina ha partecipato a quattro Mondiali (198219861990 e 1994), vincendo da protagonista il torneo del 1986; i 91 incontri disputati e le 34 reti realizzate in nazionale costituirono due record, successivamente battuti.[6] Contro l’Inghilterra ai quarti di finale di Messico 1986 segnò una rete considerata il gol del secolo, tre minuti dopo aver segnato un gol con la mano (noto come mano de Dios), altro episodio per cui è spesso ricordato.

Non è mai potuto entrare nelle graduatorie del Pallone d’oro perché fino al 1994 il premio era riservato ai giocatori europei: per questo motivo nel 1995 vinse il Pallone d’oro alla carriera. Ha comunque ricevuto altri numerosi riconoscimenti individuali: condivide con Pelé il premio ufficiale FIFA come Miglior giocatore del XX secolo,[7] e nel 1993 è stato insignito del titolo di miglior calciatore argentino di sempre, tributatogli dalla federazione calcistica dell’Argentina.[8] Nel 2002 è stato inserito nella FIFA World Cup Dream Team,[9] selezione formata dai migliori undici giocatori della storia dei Mondiali, ottenendo, tra gli undici della squadra ideale, il maggior numero di voti. Nel 2004 è stato inserito da Pelé nel FIFA 100, la lista dei 125 migliori calciatori viventi, stilata in occasione del centenario della federazione.[10] Nel 2012 viene premiato come Miglior Calciatore del Secolo ai Globe Soccer Awards e nel 2014 entra a far parte della Hall of Fame del calcio italiano tra i giocatori stranieri.[11]

Tra le figure più controverse della storia del calcio per la sua personalità eccentrica dentro e fuori il campo, fu sospeso due volte dal calcio giocato per differenti motivi: una volta per uso di cocaina nel 1991 e un’altra volta per positività ai test antidoping, al mondiale degli Stati Uniti 1994 (per uso di efedrina, sostanza non legale spesso usata per perdere peso). CT dell’Argentina per un breve periodo alla fine degli anni duemila, dopo il suo ritiro ufficiale dal calcio nel 1997, Maradona ha subito un aumento eccessivo di peso (risolto con l’aiuto di un bypass gastrico) e le conseguenze della dipendenza dalla cocaina, dalla quale si è liberato dopo lunghi soggiorni in centri di disintossicazione.[12]



Il figlio naturale Diego Sinagra nel 2008

Nato a Lanús da Diego e Dalma,[13] è padre di cinque figli: Dalma Nerea (1987) e Gianinna Dinorah (1989), nate dal matrimonio con Claudia Villafañe – sposata nel 1984 e dalla quale ha poi divorziato nel 2004 –, Diego Sinagra (1986), nato dalla relazione con Cristiana Sinagra e non riconosciuto da Maradona fino al 2007,[14] Jana (1996), dalla relazione con Valeria Sabalaín e Diego Fernando (2013), nato dalla relazione con Veronica Ojeda. Nel 2009 nasce Benjamin, figlio del calciatore Sergio Agüero e di Gianinna e primo nipote di Maradona.[15]

Anche suo figlio Diego jr. è calciatore, così come lo sono stati i suoi fratelli Hugo e Raúl (detto Lalo)[13] e come lo sono i suoi nipoti Diego Hernán Valeri e i gemelli Nicolás e Santiago Villafañe.

Durante la sua vita ha stretto forti amicizie con diversi politici di spicco tra cui il peronista di sinistra ed ex presidente dell’Argentina Carlos Saúl Menem,[16][17][18] il leader cubano Fidel Castro,[19] il presidente venezuelano Hugo Chávez,[20] e Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.[21] Ha inoltre espresso ammirazione per Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara[22] e avversione per George W. Bush.[23][24][25] Maradona è stato coinvolto in diversi problemi con la giustizia[26][27][28][29][30] e controversie legali,[31] in particolare con il fisco italiano che l’ha accusato di evasione per 39 milioni di euro: nell’ottobre 2013 Maradona ha firmato l’atto per il recupero del credito[32] e nel maggio 2014, Equitalia decide la sospensione dei pignoramenti presso terzi delle somme di cui risulta creditore.[33]

Il 5 luglio 2017 ha ricevuto la cittadinanza onoraria dal Comune di Napoli.[34]Maradona nel 2010 alla Casa Rosada alle esequie di Néstor Kirchner, assieme alla vedova Cristina e al presidente boliviano Evo Morales.

Problemi di salute

Dai primi anni ottanta fino al 2004 Maradona fu dipendente dalla cocaina: egli ammise, nella sua autobiografia pubblicata nel 2000, di aver iniziato a farne uso dal 1982 quando giocava nel Barcellona.[35] Durante il suo soggiorno a Napoli il consumo divenne una vera e propria tossicodipendenza, che cominciava ad interferire con la sua capacità di giocare a calcio.[36] Negli anni successivi al suo ritiro, a causa degli eccessi con alcol, cibo e cocaina la sua salute peggiorò progressivamente, costringendolo a diversi ricoveri ospedalieri,[37][38] interventi chirurgici,[39] oltre a piani di riabilitazione e disintossicazione[40][41][42][43][44][45] tra gli anni duemila e gli anni duemiladieci. A causa del vertiginoso aumento di peso subito all’inizio degli anni duemila, è costretto a due bypass gastrici, uno nel 2005 e uno nel 2015.[46]

Circolarono alcune notizie riguardo alla sua morte[47] che furono subito smentite, così come le voci precedenti che lo dichiaravano morto in un incidente automobilistico.[48]

Nella cultura di massa

Graffito raffigurante Maradona nei Mondiali dell’86

Sin dalla vittoria del Mondiale 1986, gli argentini usano il nome di Maradona per farsi riconoscere come suoi compatrioti in tutte le parti del mondo: in Argentina e a Napoli il campione argentino è indicato come simbolo ed eroe dello sport[49] (lo sportivo è infatti un mito “democratico”, in quanto pone le sue basi nella gente comune: è infatti rappresentante del popolo e dei suoi valori[49]). Maradona incarnò perfettamente questo spirito, date le sue umili origini e la sua originaria bassa condizione sociale: i molteplici guadagni non gli fecero perdere i modi di esprimere e il vocabolario proprio della frangia meno agiata della popolazione. A ciò si aggiunse il suo schierarsi contro i “poteri forti”: in particolar modo con i napoletani che lo videro come un rappresentante degli “oppressi” del Sud Italia che lottava contro lo “strapotere” delle squadre del Nord.[49] Numerose furono anche le “battaglie” combattute contro i “poteri forti” come la FIFA (e il suo presidente Havelange), e la AFA presieduta da Grondona.[50][51]

Fu anche per questo e non solo per le sue prodezze nei campi di calcio che Maradona venne in pratica idolatrato sia dagli argentini che dai napoletani.[52] A Rosario, in Argentina, i suoi tifosi fondarono nel 1998 la Iglesia Maradoniana (Chiesa di Maradona),[53] dove il calendario si calcola contando gli anni dalla sua nascita: il suo quarantatreesimo compleanno, nel 2003, rappresentò l’inizio dell’anno 43 d.D. – después de Diego (dopo Diego). Se alla sua nascita la chiesa contava 200 membri, i fedeli raccolti anche tramite il sito ufficiale raggiunsero gli 80.000, tra cui alcuni giocatori famosi come Michael OwenRonaldinho e Juan Román Riquelme.[53] Il 26 dicembre 2003 la sua prima squadra, l’Argentinos Juniors, inaugurando il nuovo stadio costruito nel quartiere di La Paternal a Buenos Aires, decise di dedicarglielo chiamandolo Estadio Diego Armando Maradona: il nome fu ufficializzato il 10 agosto 2004.[54] Inoltre ha un monumento situato nel museo del Boca Juniors, all’interno della Bombonera,[55] una statua nella cittadina di Bahía Blanca[56] e numerose altre sculture in diverse parti del mondo.L’altarino dedicato a Maradona, in via San Biagio dei Librai a Napoli.

A Napoli, in una via pubblica, gli fu dedicato addirittura un altarino con una foto nella quale indossa la maglia del Napoli e un suo capello in una teca, dove i tifosi si recavano prima delle partite a chiedere la “grazia calcistica”. L’11 maggio 1991 fu celebrato nella città partenopea un convegno in onore di Maradona, intitolato Te Diegum, al quale presero parte molti intellettuali tifosi della squadra azzurra. Il report di questa esperienza (oltre che della sua preparazione) è riportato in un libro omonimo, pubblicato nello stesso anno.[57]

Il 15 agosto 2005 debuttò come conduttore del programma televisivo argentino La Noche del 10, che fu molto seguito.

Oltre a ciò e alla sua autobiografia Yo soy el Diego, pubblicata nel 2000 e subito diventata un bestseller, Maradona è stato citato in numerosi libri, fumetti e film, oltre ad aver recitato in diversi camei in serie televisive. A lui furono dedicate diverse canzoni da artisti più o meno famosi, come Rodrigo Bueno, che interpretò La mano de Dios. Altri furono i Mano Negra con Santa MaradonaCharly García con Maradona blues, i Teflon Brothers con Maradona (kesä ’86), gli Attaque 77 con FrancotiradorManu Chao con La vida tombolaPino Daniele con Tango della buena suerte e altri.

Caratteristiche tecniche

«Diego era capace di cose che nessuno avrebbe potuto eguagliare. Le cose che io potrei fare con un pallone, lui potrebbe farle con un’arancia.»
(Michel Platini[58])

Maradona segna il “Gol del secolo” contro l’Inghilterra a Messico 1986

Maradona era un centrocampista offensivo[59][60] dotato di grande carisma[61][62] e personalità estroversa.[63] Mancino,[61] era rinomato per la visione di gioco,[60][61] il controllo di palla,[64] la precisione nei passaggi[64] e l’eccezionale abilità nel dribbling;[61][64][65][66] secondo Johan Cruijff, la maestria di Maradona era tale da infondere l’impressione che la sfera gli restasse incollata al piede.[67]

Pur non raggiungendo i 170 cm di altezza, aveva comunque una struttura fisica compatta e, grazie alle sue gambe forti[61] e al baricentro basso, era in grado di resistere efficacemente alla pressione fisica avversaria durante la sua corsa col pallone tra i piedi.[68] Dotato di grande fantasia[59][60] e intelligenza tattica,[62] specialista della rabona,[69] era inoltre un ottimo finalizzatore,[61][64] nonché abilissimo esecutore di calci piazzati.[64][70][71] Alle eccellenti doti tecniche univa un notevole spirito di sacrificio che, all’occorrenza, gli permetteva di contribuire con profitto alla fase difensiva della propria squadra.[5]

Sapeva imprimere alla palla curvature estreme, riuscendo a segnare direttamente da calcio d’angolo[72] o dal dischetto di centrocampo appena dopo il fischio d’inizio.[73]




Formazione calcistica e primi passi in Argentina

Maradona iniziò a giocare a calcio nella squadra del padre, l’Estrella Roja, di cui Diego era il talento più apprezzato. L’acerrima antagonista era la squadra del miglior amico di Maradona: Goyo Carrizo.[13] Fu proprio questi a farlo partecipare ad una selezione nelle giovanili dell’Argentinos Juniors di Buenos Aires.[13] Entrò così a far parte delle Cebollitas (Cipolline),[13] la squadra giovanile dell’Argentinos, il 5 dicembre 1970 a 10 anni.[74] Il suo primo allenatore fu Francisco Cornejo,[13] che all’inizio non credette alla giovane età di Maradona (gli fu addirittura richiesto un documento, che però non aveva con sé al momento del provino).[13][75] Con lui e Carrizo in rosa, la squadra giovanile raggiunse una striscia di 136 risultati utili consecutivi.[13][75]

Maradona iniziò la sua carriera da professionista nell’Argentinos Juniors nel 1976, debuttando con la maglia numero 16 il 20 ottobre nella partita contro il Talleres,[76][77] dieci giorni prima di compiere sedici anni,[76] diventando il più giovane di sempre a esordire nella prima divisione argentina,[3] record battuto da Sergio Agüero[3] nel 2003. Poco prima di farlo esordire l’allora allenatore dell’Argentinos Juniors, Juan Carlos Montes, disse a Maradona: “Vai Diego, gioca come sai“.[78] In tutta risposta, Diego fece subito un tunnel al primo avversario che gli si parò davanti, Juan Domingo Patricio Cabrera.[76][78] L’Argentinos perse 1-0,[76] tuttavia Maradona iniziò a giocare spezzoni di partite fino a diventare titolare. I primi gol nell’Argentinos arrivarono il 14 novembre dello stesso anno, con una doppietta al San Lorenzo.[79] Nel 1978 divenne capocannoniere del campionato argentino con 22 reti,[80] di cui una dal dischetto di centrocampo dopo il fischio d’inizio.[73]

Nel 1979 e nel 1980 vinse il Pallone d’Oro sudamericano, il premio che spetta al miglior giocatore del continente.[81][82] Sempre nel 1980 mise già a segno uno dei più bei gol della sua carriera nella partita contro il Deportivo Pereira disputata il 19 febbraio. Lui stesso ha affermato che si tratta del più bel gol in assoluto da lui realizzato.[83][84][85][86]

Boca Juniors

Un giovane Maradona esultante al Boca Juniors nel 1981

Trasferitosi al Boca Juniors, la squadra per la quale tifava il padre, nella trattativa, oltre a un conguaglio pari a 2 milioni di dollari, hanno fatto il percorso inverso SalinasSantosBordónZanabria e Randazzo.[87] Per il passaggio alla nuova squadra fu organizzata un’amichevole con l’Argentinos, il 20 febbraio 1981. Maradona giocò il primo tempo con i vecchi compagni e la ripresa con il Boca Juniors. L’amichevole finì 3-2 per l’Argentinos, con un gol di Maradona. Due giorni dopo il debutto ufficiale alla Bombonera, il Boca vinse contro il Talleres per 4-1, con doppietta di Maradona. Un infortunio lo fermò per quattro giornate, e al suo rientro segnò 28 gol in 40 partite e guidando il Boca Juniors alla vittoria del Campionato Metropolitano di Apertura 1981.

L’anno successivo, a causa di problemi economici, il Boca Juniors dovette privarsi di Maradona, non essendo in grado di pagare il suo trasferimento definitivo (Maradona era arrivato in prestito). Si fece quindi avanti il Barcellona, con l’offerta di un milione e duecentomila peseta spagnole (pari a circa dodici miliardi di lire). L’ufficializzazione poté arrivare solo dopo i Mondiali del 1982, disputati proprio in Spagna e per i quali Maradona – al contrario di quattro anni prima – venne convocato.

In un’intervista del 2013 ha raccontato: “Prima che io andassi al Barcellona la Juventus mi ha contattato attraverso Omar Sivori, ma io in quel momento ero troppo piccolo e non avevo voglia di andarmene dall’Argentina, e poi l’avvocato Agnelli aveva un grosso problema con la Fiat, e portare un giocatore come me, con quello che costavo, poteva far restare male tutti gli operai della Fiat e non ne abbiamo parlato più. Sono rimasto in Argentina”.[88]


Il 5 giugno 1982 diventò un giocatore del Barça dell’allora presidente Josep Lluís Núñez;[89] rimediò diversi infortuni sino a che un’epatite virale lo allontanò dai campi per oltre tre mesi. In Coppa delle Coppe i catalani furono eliminati ai quarti di finale dall’Austria Vienna, e Maradona poté giocare solo la partita di ritorno allo stadio Camp Nou di Barcellona a causa dell’epatite che ancora lo debilitava. A fine annata il Barça ottenne il quarto posto nel campionato spagnolo, vincendo la Coppa del Re, sconfiggendo il 4 giugno 1983 in finale il Real Madrid, e la Copa de la Liga nella doppia finale sempre contro il Real Madrid (2-2 all’andata il 26 giugno 1983 e 2-1 al ritorno il 29 giugno 1983), con un gol di Maradona in entrambe le partite.Maglia autografata di Maradona al museo del Barcellona

La stagione 1983-1984, con César Luis Menotti sulla panchina del Barça, cominciò meglio: a settembre, alla prima partita di Coppa delle Coppe contro la squadra tedesca del Magdeburgo, Maradona segnò una tripletta e la partita terminò 5-1. Alla quarta giornata di campionato, durante l’incontro fra Barcellona e Athletic Bilbao, mentre la partita era sul 4-0 a favore del Barça, Maradona subì un infortunio per un fallo del difensore dell’Athletic Andoni Goikoetxea Olaskoaga. Durante il suo infortunio il Barça vinse la Supercoppa spagnola nella doppia finale con l’Athletic Bilbao (1-3 all’andata il 26 ottobre 1983 e 0-1 al ritorno il 30 novembre 1983).

Rientrato all’inizio del 1984, grazie alle cure del suo medico di fiducia Ruben Dario Oliva,[90] Maradona condusse il Barcellona a sei risultati utili consecutivi, fino a quando una sconfitta di 2-1 contro il Real Madrid fermò i blaugrana. Intanto a marzo riprese la Coppa delle Coppe: il Barcellona contro il Manchester Utd vinse 2-0 la gara d’andata, ma il 3-0 del ritorno per gli inglesi lo condannò all’eliminazione.

La stagione 1983-1984 vide di nuovo il Barça lontano dal primo posto nella Liga. Maradona giocò 16 partite in cui segnò 11 gol. A maggio si tenne la finale di Coppa del Re fra Barça e Athletic Club, gara che segnava l’occasione per Maradona per rincontrare Goikoetxea. Alla fine della partita, vinta dal Bilbao per 1-0, Maradona si avventò contro il giocatore basco, innescando una rissa tra le due squadre. In seguito si scusò personalmente in un incontro ufficiale con il re di Spagna Juan Carlos.

Ripresosi completamente dall’infortunio, al termine di una complessa trattativa,[91] Maradona fu ingaggiato dalla società italiana del Napoli per 13 miliardi e mezzo di lire.[91] Il contratto fu firmato senza che il Napoli avesse la liquidità per regolarizzare l’acquisto;[91] il denaro venne versato solo in un secondo momento.[91]

Vittorie con il Napoli

Maradona assieme a Michel Platini nel campionato 1986-1987

Il 5 luglio 1984 Maradona venne presentato ufficialmente allo stadio San Paolo e fu accolto da circa ottantamila persone, che pagarono la quota simbolica di mille lire per vederlo.[92] Nella prima stagione il Napoli raggiunse una posizione di centro classifica, mentre l’anno successivo ottenne il terzo posto.

Sotto la guida dell’allenatore Ottavio Bianchi, il Napoli vinse il suo primo scudetto nel campionato 1986-1987, stagione in cui batté dopo trentadue anni la Juventus al Comunale di Torino. Il 10 maggio 1987 il club partenopeo pareggiò per 1-1 la partita casalinga con la Fiorentina, aggiudicandosi aritmeticamente il suo primo scudetto. Il Napoli vinse anche la sua terza Coppa Italia, vincendo tutte le 13 gare, comprese le due finali disputate contro l’Atalanta. L’accoppiata scudetto/coppa fu un’impresa che fino a quel momento era riuscita solo al Grande Torino e alla Juventus.

Nella stagione 1987-1988 il Napoli di Ottavio Bianchi partecipò per la prima volta alla Coppa dei Campioni, da cui fu eliminato dopo un doppio confronto con il Real Madrid. In campionato il Napoli, fino alla ventesima giornata, mantenne cinque punti di vantaggio sulla seconda, quindi si fece superare dal Milan, perdendo quattro delle ultime cinque partite. Maradona fu capocannoniere del torneo con 15 reti all’attivo. Nel 1994 un pentito camorrista sostenne che Maradona e compagni avessero venduto lo scudetto su pressioni del Clan Giuliano di Forcella che, in caso di vittoria dello scudetto da parte dei partenopei, avrebbe perso decine di miliardi nelle scommesse clandestine,[93] accuse che successivamente si riveleranno infondate.[94]Maradona dopo una sconfitta nel campionato di Serie A 1988-1989

Nel 1989 il Napoli sfiorò la tripletta, concludendo il campionato ancora al secondo posto, dietro l’Inter dei record, arrivando in finale di Coppa Italia e vincendo la Coppa UEFA (terzo titolo internazionale) dopo aver battuto nella doppia finale lo Stoccarda (2-1 all’andata e 3-3 al ritorno). Durante l’estate del 1989, Maradona fu quasi sul punto di trasferirsi all’Olympique Marsiglia: aveva già firmato il contratto, ma poi il presidente del Napoli, Corrado Ferlaino, bloccò la trattativa.[95]

Nella stagione 1989-1990 a Bianchi subentrò Albertino Bigon. Maradona non giocò le prime partite della stagione e venne sostituito da Gianfranco Zola, rientrando presto in squadra. Il campionato fu riconquistato dal Napoli con Maradona pronto a presentarsi al mondiale di Italia 1990 fregiandosi del titolo di campione d’Italia.

Ultima stagione italiana

La stagione 1990-1991 cominciò con la vittoria nella Supercoppa italiana del 1990 ottenuta battendo la Juventus per 5-1. Nelle prime tre partite di campionato, invece, la squadra ottiene un punto. In Coppa dei Campioni, dopo la doppia vittoria sugli ungheresi dello Újpest, al secondo turno il Napoli incontrò lo Spartak Mosca; l’andata al San Paolo finì in parità, 0-0, e in occasione della partita di ritorno in Russia Maradona non partì con la squadra, bensì noleggiò un aereo privato ed arrivò a Mosca solo la sera successiva; il caso fu ampiamente affrontato dalla stampa italiana, che tra l’altro riportò alcune dichiarazioni di Luciano Moggi (allora dirigente del Napoli) e Albertino Bigon. Maradona entrò in campo solo nel secondo tempo, l’incontro finì 0-0 anche dopo i supplementari e i russi vinsero la partita ai rigori (nonostante Maradona avesse siglato il suo).Maradona, capitano del Napoli, solleva la Supercoppa italiana 1990

L’esperienza italiana di Maradona finì il 17 marzo 1991 dopo un controllo antidoping effettuato al termine della partita di campionato Napoli-Bari (1-0) che diede il responso di positività alla cocaina.[96][97] Il Napoli chiuse la stagione 1990-1991 al settimo posto.

Nel 2000 il Napoli decise che mai più nessun calciatore avrebbe indossato una maglia col numero 10 appartenuto a Maradona. Nel 2004, a causa del fallimento e della successiva iscrizione al campionato di Serie C1 e per il regolamento della numerazione delle maglie di quest’ultima, il Napoli fu comunque costretto a ristampare la maglia con quel numero, fino al nuovo ritiro nel 2006, grazie alla promozione in Serie B.

Cessione al Siviglia e ritorno in patria

Dopo un anno e mezzo di squalifica per doping,[97] nel 1992, la carriera di Maradona riprese nel Siviglia. Dei 7,5 milioni di dollari dovuti al Napoli dalla squadra spagnola, la società italiana ne ricevette solo quattro: la FIFA, infatti, autorizzò il Siviglia a non completare il pagamento.[98][99]

Al Siviglia Maradona incontrò nuovamente Carlos Bilardo, l’allenatore dell’Argentina al mondiale del 1986. Maradona debuttò il 28 settembre 1992 contro il Bayern Monaco e il 4 ottobre giocò la sua prima partita nella Liga, in cui il Siviglia fu sconfitto dall’Athletic Bilbao per 2-1. Tornato anche nella nazionale argentina come capitano, vinse, nel 1993, il Trofeo Artemio Franchi, ovvero la coppa intercontinentale per nazioni (disputata, nella storia, per due volte; l’altra coppa fu vinta nel 1985 dalla Francia), superando la Danimarca vincitrice del campionato d’Europa 1992.

Il Siviglia fallì la qualificazione per la Coppa UEFA; in 25 partite Maradona segnò 5 gol e fu autore di 12 assist. Dopo solo una stagione, la sua esperienza sivigliana giunse al capolinea.

Maradona tornò a giocare in Argentina nel Newell’s Old Boys. Il 31 ottobre 1993, un giorno dopo il suo compleanno, ritornò a giocare con la nazionale, a Sydney contro l’Australia per l’andata dello spareggio interzona di qualificazione al mondiale di Stati Uniti 1994. La partita finì 1-1 e la rete argentina di Abel Balbo fu propiziata da un cross di Maradona. Nella gara di ritorno del 17 novembre, al Monumental di Buenos Aires, l’Argentina vinse per 1-0, qualificandosi al mondiale statunitense.

Dopo 5 partite disputate, a seguito della partita contro l’Huracán, il 12 febbraio 1994, Maradona sciolse il contratto con il Newell’s, recependo un milione e mezzo di dollari, la metà di quanto previsto dal contratto.[100] In seguito si ritirò per alcuni mesi dalle competizioni in attesa del mondiale di USA ’94, tornando a giocare in nazionale il 20 aprile 1994.

Parentesi da allenatore e ritiro

A seguito della squalifica per doping rimediata durante il mondiale statunitense per positività all’efedrina, Maradona provò a lavorare come allenatore in due brevi periodi, guidando il Dep. Mandiyú di Corrientes (dal 3 ottobre al 30 dicembre 1994) e il Racing Club (dal 6 gennaio al 26 marzo 1995), senza successo. Nel primo caso le dimissioni furono dovute ad uno scontro con la dirigenza della squadra;[101] al momento delle dimissioni il Deportivo Mandiyú non era ancora in zona retrocessione, poi concretizzatasi alla fine della stagione 1994-1995. Nel secondo caso Maradona lasciò la conduzione tecnica quando l’allora presidente del Racing perse le elezioni per rimanere a capo della società.[102]

Nel 1995 gli venne assegnato il Pallone d’oro alla carriera.[76] In attività non poté concorrere all’assegnazione del premio perché i calciatori non europei erano allora esclusi dalla competizione.

Il 7 ottobre dello stesso anno tornò a giocare con la maglia del Boca Juniors nella partita contro il Colón (SF) (1-0). Rimase nel Boca Juniors per due anni prima di ritirarsi dal calcio al termine del superclásico contro il River Plate[76] disputato il 25 ottobre 1997.[76]


Esordio e Mondiale 1982

Maradona con la maglia dell’Under-20 nel 1979, contro l’Unione Sovietica, nella vittoriosa finale del mondiale di categoria

Pochi mesi dopo il debutto in campionato per Maradona arrivò anche il debutto internazionale: il 27 febbraio 1977 l’allora allenatore della Nazionale maggiore César Luis Menotti lo convocò per un’amichevole contro l’Ungheria allo stadio La Bombonera di Buenos Aires.[103] Successivamente esordì anche con la Nazionale giovanile il 3 aprile dello stesso anno.[104]

Diventato capocannoniere del campionato argentino,[80] non venne inserito nella rosa della Selección (che divenne campione del mondo per la prima volta nella sua storia), in quanto il CT Menotti gli preferì René Houseman.[3]

Subito dopo la vittoria mondiale, Maradona divenne titolare della Nazionale; nell’amichevole fra Argentina e Resto del Mondo allo stadio Monumental di Buenos Aires, il 25 giugno 1979, finita 2-1 per gli avversari, fu suo l’unico gol degli argentini. Contemporaneamente continuò a giocare con la Nazionale Juniores, vincendo nello stesso anno i Mondiali di calcio giovanili in Giappone (finale vinta contro l’URSS 3-1, segnando un gol), durante il torneo segnò 6 reti diventando il secondo miglior marcatore del torneo dietro il compagno di squadra Ramón Díaz.

Maradona venne convocato per i Mondiali del 1982, disputati in Spagna. Complessivamente collezionò 5 presenze e fece 2 gol, venendo anche espulso contro il Brasile all’85’ minuto per un fallo di reazione su João Batista da Silva.

Messico 1986: Argentina campione

Maradona con la Coppa del Mondo vinta dall’Argentina a Mexico ’86.

Nel 1986 Maradona vinse i Mondiali in Messico:[3] segnò 5 gol e realizzò 5 assist nelle 7 partite giocate nel torneo (tutte vinte, tranne l’1-1 contro l’Italia nella prima fase a gironi). In particolare, nel corso del secondo tempo dei quarti di finale contro l’Inghilterra,[3] realizza due gol passati alla storia del calcio rispettivamente come «la mano de Dios» e «il gol del secolo»[3] apre le marcature segnando un gol di mano nel tentativo di anticipare il portiere avversario Peter Shilton in uscita[3] –– la terna arbitrale guidata da Ali Bennaceur non si accorge dell’infrazione e convalida erroneamente la rete[3] (poi rivendicata da Maradona come atto di giustizia a seguito della sconfitta patita dagli argentini contro i britannici nella guerra delle Falkland del 1982)[3][105] –– e firma il 2-0 dopo aver dribblato tutti gli avversari che hanno provato ad ostacolarlo nella sua corsa dalla linea di centrocampo alla porta difesa da Shilton.[3][106] Il secondo è stato inoltre votato come il più grande gol nella storia della Coppa del Mondo, in un sondaggio indetto dalla FIFA nel 2002.

L’Argentina affronta il Belgio in semifinale e Maradona sigla una doppietta nel 2-0 che vale la finale contro la Germania Ovest:[3] nell’ultimo atto, i tedeschi non gli lasciano libertà di manovra,[3] tuttavia la mezzala riesce a inventarsi l’assist per il 3-2 finale realizzato da Jorge Burruchaga.[3] Per l’Argentina si tratta del secondo Mondiale, l’unico vinto da Maradona.

Italia 1990

Maradona capitanò l’Argentina anche nei campionati del Mondo 1990, svoltisi in Italia. Un infortunio alla caviglia pregiudicò le sue prestazioni.

Negli ottavi di finale contro il Brasile, Maradona fu autore dell’assist a Claudio Caniggia per il gol vincente. Nei quarti di finale l’Argentina affrontò la Jugoslavia; dopo che i tempi regolamentari e supplementari si erano chiusi a reti inviolate, gli argentini superarono gli jugoslavi 3-2 ai calci di rigore nonostante l’errore dello stesso Maradona (e del compagno di squadra Troglio).[107] Si giunse così alla partita successiva contro l’Italia, padrona di casa, allo Stadio San Paolo del suo Napoli, dove il pubblico si divise a metà tra il sostegno alla Selección e agli Azzurri guidati da Azeglio Vicini. La gara si risolse anch’essa ai rigori dopo un 1-1 all’overtime; questa volta Maradona segnò il suo tiro dal dischetto, e l’Argentina si qualificò per la finale.Maradona contrastato dai tedeschi Matthäus e Völler durante la finale del Mondiale 1990

Nella gara decisiva, a Roma, l’Albiceleste perse contro la Germania Ovest per 1-0 con un calcio di rigore trasformato da Andreas Brehme all’85’, a seguito di un fallo di Néstor Sensini su Rudi Völler. In quest’occasione, Maradona si rese protagonista di un discusso episodio extracalcistico: prima della partita, il pubblico dell’Olimpico fischiò l’intera esecuzione dell’inno nazionale argentino e il giocatore, ripreso dalle telecamere, rispose con l’esclamazione «hijos de puta» (in lingua italiana figli di puttana), rivolta agli spalti.[108]

USA 1994 e squalifica per doping

In attesa dei Mondiali per alcuni mesi Maradona si ritirò dalle competizioni di club e tornò a giocare il 20 aprile, in un’amichevole tra Argentina e Marocco che terminò 3-1 per l’Argentina, con una rete di Maradona su rigore (dopo 1.255 minuti di gioco di “digiuno”). Maradona non avrebbe potuto partecipare alla prevista tournée pre-mondiale in Giappone in quanto gli fu negato il visto di ingresso a causa dei precedenti con la droga.[109] La Nazionale argentina decise di non recarsi in Giappone senza Maradona, cambiò quindi il programma di incontri sfidando Israele (3-0), Ecuador (1-0) e Croazia (0-0).

Ai Mondiali, iniziati a metà giugno, l’Argentina vinse 4-0 la prima partita a Boston contro la Grecia, in cui Maradona realizzò il terzo gol. Gli argentini vinsero (2-1) anche la seconda partita contro la Nigeria. Ancora una volta l’esito positivo di un controllo antidoping fermò la carriera di Maradona, che fu trovato positivo all’efedrina, sostanza stimolante proibita. La FIFA lo espulse dal campionato[110] e l’Argentina fu eliminata agli ottavi contro la Romania di Gheorghe Hagi.

Maradona si è sempre difeso affermando che la positività al test era dovuta all’ingestione di una bevanda energetica, la Ripped Fuel, datagli dal suo allenatore personale in sostituzione della Ripped Fast, che in Argentina usava regolarmente e che era permessa dalla FIFA, a differenza della Ripped Fuel, versione statunitense che, all’insaputa dell’allenatore, disse conteneva efedrina.[111]


Nazionale argentina

Maradona nel 2009 sulla panchina della Selecciòn

Dopo alcune brevi esperienze a metà anni novanta, il 28 ottobre 2008 viene nominato nuovo CT dell’Argentina, subentrando ad Alfio Basile. Dopo il vittorioso esordio, 1-0 alla Scozia, sotto la sua gestione l’Albiceleste subisce la sconfitta più pesante nella storia delle qualificazioni mondiali, un 6-1 contro la Bolivia penultima in classifica: ciononostante, la selezione si qualifica per il Mondiale sudafricano all’ultimo turno, battendo l’Uruguay in trasferta per 1-0.[112] Seguono due mesi di squalifica inflitti dalla FIFA al CT, reo di aver insultato i giornalisti che avevano messo in dubbio le sue capacità da tecnico.[113] In Sudafrica, dopo un inizio convincente grazie a quattro vittorie consecutive, Maradona esce dalla rassegna ai quarti di finale per mano della Germania (4-0) ed è esonerato da CT.

Emirati Arabi Uniti e Dorados

Il 14 maggio 2011, dopo 10 mesi di inattività, Maradona viene ingaggiato dall’Al-Wasl di Dubai, firmando un contratto biennale da $ 4,5 milioni a stagione più un jet privato a disposizione come benefit.[114][115] Il 15 settembre seguente perde la sua prima partita di Emirates Cup per 4-3 contro l’Al-Jazira.[116]Maradona nel 2012

Debutta in campionato il 16 ottobre con la vittoria contro lo Sharjah per 3-0. Dalla Coppa del Presidente degli Emirati Arabi Uniti viene eliminato nei quarti di finale dopo la sconfitta per 3-2 contro l’Al-Wahda del 10 gennaio 2012. Debutta poi anche nella Coppa dei Campioni del Golfo il 6 marzo vincendo contro l’Al-Nahda dell’Oman per 0-2. L’11 marzo esce dall’Emirates Cup eliminato in semifinale dall’Al-Ahli di Fabio Cannavaro con il risultato di 1-0. Vincendo tutte e quattro le partite del girone della Coppa dei Campioni del Golfo si qualifica ai quarti di finale dove il 15 maggio elimina i connazionali dell’Al-Wahda per 5-3 ai calci di rigore dopo che i tempi regolamentari erano terminati con il risultato di 1-1. Il 26 maggio all’ultima giornata di campionato perde per 2-6 in casa contro l’Al-Alhi terminando il campionato all’ottavo posto con 26 punti. Conquista poi la finale della Coppa dei Campioni del Golfo il 30 maggio dopo aver superato i qatariani dell’Al-Khor in semifinale. Il 5 giugno vince la gara d’andata della finale per 1-3 contro l’Al-Muharraq del Bahrain. Il 10 giugno perde però la gara di ritorno ai rigori per 4-5 dopo che i tempi regolamentari erano terminati con il punteggio di 1-3 per gli ospiti.

Il 10 luglio seguente dopo alcuni attriti con la dirigenza e con alcuni giocatori, viene sollevato dall’incarico.[117]

Il 7 maggio 2017 viene nominato allenatore dell’Al-Fujairah, tornando così in panchina dopo cinque anni. La squadra gioca nella seconda divisione degli Emirati Arabi, firma un contratto annuale.[118] Il 27 aprile 2018 si dimette dopo aver fallito la promozione in prima divisione: la sua squadra è stata l’unica a non aver perso neppure una partita in stagione.[119]

Il 7 settembre 2018 viene annunciato come nuovo tecnico dei Dorados.[120] Perde due volte il campionato di seconda divisione messicana, entrambe le volte nella doppia finale contro l’Atlético San Luis, rassegnando le dimissioni il 14 giugno 2019 per motivi di salute.[121]

Dopo il ritiro dall’attività agonistica

Nel 2000 Maradona pubblicò la sua autobiografia, intitolata Yo Soy El Diego (Io sono il Diego), che in Argentina divenne subito un bestseller.Maradona dopo una dieta rigorosa che gli fece perdere peso

In seguito il Napoli decise che mai più nessun calciatore avrebbe indossato una maglia con il numero 10 appartenuto a Maradona, ritirandone la maglia. Nel 2004, a causa del fallimento e della successiva iscrizione al campionato di Serie C1 e visto il regolamento della numerazione delle maglie di quest’ultima, il club sarà costretto a ristampare la maglia con il 10, fino al nuovo ritiro nel 2006 grazie alla promozione in Serie B.
Nel 2001 anche l’AFA chiese alla FIFA l’autorizzazione a ritirare la maglia numero 10 della Nazionale argentina in onore di Maradona, ma la FIFA dichiarò respinta la richiesta nel 2002[122] poiché in vista dei Mondiali 2002 la lista dei giocatori doveva essere numerata dall’1 al 23.[123] La Federazione argentina annunciò che l’avrebbe assegnato al terzo portiere, Roberto Bonano, ma ai Mondiali la maglia fu vestita da Ariel Ortega e a Bonano andò il numero 23.[124]

L’11 dicembre dello stesso anno, all’Auditorium del Foro Italico di Roma al FIFA World Player 2000 condotto da Massimo Giletti, viene premiato con il FIFA Internet Century Awards come Calciatore del Secolo secondo un sondaggio popolare (53,6%) mentre Pelé, presente anch’esso in sala, ottiene lo stesso premio da una giuria della FIFA.

Il 10 novembre 2001 diede ufficialmente l’addio al calcio giocato nell’amichevole fra l’Argentina e una selezione di Stelle Mondiali, conclusasi sul 6-3 con doppietta di Maradona su rigore.[123] Il 26 dicembre 2003, l’Argentinos Juniors rinominò il suo stadio Stadio Diego Armando Maradona, in onore al campione argentino.

Il 27 aprile 2005 fu nominato direttore sportivo del Boca Juniors, il primo agosto successivo divenne vicepresidente onorario del club.[76] Tra le sue prime decisioni assunse Alfio Basile come nuovo allenatore. In quell’anno il Boca vinse il campionato di Apertura, la Copa Sudamericana e la Recopa Sudamericana e nel 2006 vinse invece il campionato di Clausura e nuovamente la Recopa Sudamericana. Il 26 agosto 2006 Maradona abbandonò la carica per disaccordi con l’AFA, che scelse proprio Basile come nuovo allenatore della Nazionale argentina. Il Boca Juniors ha voluto inoltre onorare Maradona con una statua posta all’interno dello stadio Bombonera.

Il 15 agosto 2005 esordì come conduttore del programma televisivo argentino La Noche del 10 che fu molto seguito. In una puntata ospitò e intervistò Pelé, il calciatore che gli contende la palma di miglior giocatore di ogni tempo. Altri ospiti furono ZidaneRonaldoHernán CrespoFidel CastroMike TysonRaffaella Carrà e Robbie Williams. Inoltre, durante una puntata incentrata sul tema dei talenti calcistici più promettenti dell’Argentina, tra i vari Messi e Agüero, spuntava anche Ezequiel Lavezzi, che in quel periodo giocava nel San Lorenzo.Diego Maradona durante il Soccer Aid del 27 maggio 2006

Nel maggio 2006 ha accettato di partecipare al Soccer Aid, un programma di sostegno all’UNICEF.[125] Nello specifico, Maradona giocò nel Resto del Mondo contro l’Inghilterra il 27 maggio: segnò su calcio di rigore per la rappresentativa mondiale e la partita finì 2-1 per l’Inghilterra.[126]

Nel corso degli anni ha partecipato a diverse trasmissione televisive.[76] In seguito sponsorizzò e partecipò in prima persona, in Sudamerica, a incontri amichevoli di showbol tra ex stelle del calcio, che riscossero un buon successo.[127]

L’11 maggio 2011 ha partecipato alla partita d’inaugurazione del nuovo stadio della squadra cecena Terek Groznyj di proprietà del dittatore Ramzan Kadyrov. La squadra di Maradona era composta da elementi come Jean-Pierre PapinAlessandro CostacurtaChristian VieriIván ZamoranoFabien BarthezFranco BaresiLuís FigoRoberto AyalaAlain BoghossianManuel AmorosRobbie FowlerNelson Dida e Enzo Francescoli. La partita è stata vinta per 5-2 dalla formazione del Caucaso del Nord con anche tre gol del presidente Kadyrov tra cui uno segnato dopo aver dribblato Maradona che si è poi riscattato segnando su punizione.[128][129] Nel dicembre 2012 a Dubai viene premiato come miglior calciatore del secolo ai Globe Soccer Awards.

In seguito a Dubai ha sfidato amichevolmente il connazionale Juan Martín del Potro, 7º tennista al mondo.[130] Nello stesso periodo sempre nella città degli emirati ha disputato un match di un torneo di esibizione di calcio a 7 trascinando nella prima partita la sua squadra, il Dubai Sports Council, alla vittoria per 3-2 contro il Dubai Courts con 2 gol, uno su punizione e l’altro su rigore.[131][132]

Il 17 ottobre a Milano ha presentato una collana di DVD a lui dedicata e curata dell’amico Gianni Minà per La Gazzetta dello Sport.

Il 1º settembre 2014 partecipa alla Partita per la Pace organizzata da Papa Francesco e Javier Zanetti allo Stadio Olimpico di Roma: gioca per tutti i 90 minuti servendo anche un assist al compagno di squadra Roberto Baggio.[133] A dicembre, all’età di 54 anni, torna in campo in occasione del Dubai National Day Match, una maratona calcistica da 36 ore no-stop.[134]

Il 22 giugno 2015, Maradona, tramite lo storico telecronista celebre per aver commentato in diretta il gol del secolo,[3] Víctor Hugo Morales, annuncia di volersi candidare alla presidenza della FIFA al posto di Joseph Blatter.[135]

Il 15 maggio 2018 viene nominato presidente onorario della squadra bielorussa Dinamo Brėst.[136]


Tra club, nazionale maggiore e nazionale Under-20, Maradona ha giocato globalmente 703 partite segnando 359 reti, alla media di 0,51 gol a partita.

Presenze e reti nei club

StagioneSquadraCampionatoCoppe nazionaliCoppe continentaliAltre coppeTotale
1976 Argentinos JuniorsN112112
Totale Argentinos Juniors166116166116
1981 Boca JuniorsM+N28+1217+114028
1982-1983 BarcellonaPD2011CR53CdC45CdL643523
Totale Barcellona36229478645838
1984-1985 NapoliA3014CI633617
Totale Napoli18881452925510259115
1992-1993 SivigliaPD265CR33298
1993-1994 Newell’s Old BoysA5050
1995-1996 Boca JuniorsA+C11+133+2245
Totale Boca Juniors7033107133
Totale carriera4912595736321384588312

Cronologia presenze e reti in nazionale

Cronologia completa delle presenze e delle reti in nazionale ― Argentina
DataCittàIn casaRisultatoOspitiCompetizioneRetiNote
27-2-1977Buenos AiresArgentina 5 – 1 UngheriaAmichevole
24-8-1977Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 1 ParaguayCoppa Félix Bogado
31-8-1977AsunciónParaguay 2 – 0
(1 – 3 dcr)
 ArgentinaCoppa Félix Bogado
19-4-1978Buenos AiresArgentina 3 – 1 IrlandaAmichevole
25-4-1979Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 1 BulgariaAmichevole
22-5-1979BernaArgentina 0 – 0
(8 – 7 dcr)
 Paesi Bassi75º Anniversario FIFA
26-5-1979RomaItalia 2 – 2 ArgentinaAmichevole
29-5-1979DublinoIrlanda 0 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
2-6-1979GlasgowScozia 1 – 3 ArgentinaAmichevole1
25-6-1979Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 2 World StarsAmichevole1
2-8-1979Rio de JaneiroBrasile 2 – 1 ArgentinaCoppa America 1979 – 1º turno
8-8-1979Buenos AiresArgentina 3 – 0 BoliviaCoppa America 1979 – 1º turno1
30-4-1980Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 IrlandaAmichevole1
13-5-1980LondraInghilterra 3 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole
16-5-1980DublinoIrlanda 0 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole
21-5-1980ViennaAustria 1 – 5 ArgentinaAmichevole3
18-9-1980MendozaArgentina 2 – 2 CileAmichevole
9-10-1980Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 0 BulgariaAmichevole
12-10-1980Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 1 PoloniaAmichevole1
15-10-1980Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 CecoslovacchiaAmichevole
4-12-1980Mar del PlataArgentina 1 – 1 Unione SovieticaAmichevole1
16-12-1980CórdobaArgentina 5 – 0 SvizzeraAmichevole1
1-1-1981MontevideoArgentina 2 – 1 Germania OvestMundialito
4-1-1981MontevideoArgentina 1 – 1 BrasileMundialito1
9-3-1982Mar del PlataArgentina 0 – 0 CecoslovacchiaAmichevole
24-3-1982Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 1 Germania OvestAmichevole
14-4-1982Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 1 Unione SovieticaAmichevole
5-5-1982Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 1 BulgariaAmichevole
12-5-1982RosarioArgentina 1 – 0 RomaniaAmichevole
13-6-1982BarcellonaArgentina 0 – 1 BelgioMondiali 1982 – 1º turno
18-6-1982AlicanteArgentina 4 – 1 UngheriaMondiali 1982 – 1º turno2
23-6-1982AlicanteArgentina 2 – 0 El SalvadorMondiali 1982 – 1º turno
29-6-1982BarcellonaItalia 2 – 1 ArgentinaMondiali 1982 – 2º turno
2-7-1982BarcellonaArgentina 1 – 3 BrasileMondiali 1982 – 2º turno
9-5-1985Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 1 ParaguayAmichevole1
14-5-1985Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 0 CileAmichevole1
26-5-1985San CristóbalVenezuela 2 – 3 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 19862
2-6-1985BogotáColombia 1 – 3 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 1986
9-6-1985Buenos AiresArgentina 3 – 0 VenezuelaQual. Mondiali 19861
16-6-1985Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 ColombiaQual. Mondiali 1986
23-6-1985LimaPerù 1 – 0 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 1986
30-6-1985Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 2 PerùQual. Mondiali 1986
14-11-1985Los AngelesMessico 1 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole1
17-11-1985PueblaMessico 1 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole
26-3-1986ParigiFrancia 2 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
30-4-1986OsloNorvegia 1 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
4-5-1986Tel AvivIsraele 2 – 7 ArgentinaAmichevole2
2-6-1986Città del MessicoArgentina 3 – 1 Corea del SudMondiali 1986 – 1º turno
5-6-1986PueblaItalia 1 – 1 ArgentinaMondiali 1986 – 1º turno1
10-6-1986Città del MessicoArgentina 2 – 0 BulgariaMondiali 1986 – 1º turno
16-6-1986PueblaArgentina 1 – 0 UruguayMondiali 1986 – Ottavi di finale
22-6-1986Città del MessicoArgentina 2 – 1 InghilterraMondiali 1986 – Quarti di finale2
25-6-1986Città del MessicoArgentina 2 – 0 BelgioMondiali 1986 – Semifinale2
29-6-1986Città del MessicoArgentina 3 – 2 Germania OvestMondiali 1986 – Finale2º titolo mondiale
10-6-1987ZurigoItalia 3 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole1
27-6-1987Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 1 PerùCoppa America 1987 – 1º turno1
2-7-1987Buenos AiresArgentina 3 – 0 EcuadorCoppa America 1987 – 1º turno2
9-7-1987Buenos AiresArgentina 0 – 1 UruguayCoppa America 1987 – Semifinale
11-7-1987Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 2 ColombiaCoppa America 1987 – Finale 3º posto
16-12-1987Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 Germania OvestAmichevole
31-3-1988BerlinoUnione Sovietica 4 – 2 ArgentinaTorneo 4 Nazioni1
2-4-1988BerlinoGermania Ovest 1 – 0 ArgentinaTorneo 4 Nazioni
12-10-1988SivigliaSpagna 1 – 1 ArgentinaCoppa Hispanidad
2-7-1989GoiâniaArgentina 1 – 0 CileCoppa America 1989 – 1º turno
4-7-1989GoiâniaArgentina 0 – 0 EcuadorCoppa America 1989 – 1º turno
8-7-1989GoiâniaArgentina 1 – 0 UruguayCoppa America 1989 – 1º turno
10-7-1989GoiâniaArgentina 0 – 0 BoliviaCoppa America 1989 – 1º turno
12-7-1989Rio de JaneiroArgentina 0 – 2 BrasileCoppa America 1989 – Girone finale
14-7-1989Rio de JaneiroArgentina 0 – 2 UruguayCoppa America 1989 – Girone finale
21-12-1989CagliariItalia 0 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
3-5-1990ViennaAustria 1 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole
8-5-1990BernaSvizzera 1 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevole
22-5-1990Tel AvivIsraele 1 – 2 ArgentinaAmichevole1
8-6-1990MilanoArgentina 0 – 1 CamerunMondiali 1990 – 1º turno
13-6-1990NapoliArgentina 2 – 0 Unione SovieticaMondiali 1990 – 1º turno
18-6-1990NapoliArgentina 1 – 1 RomaniaMondiali 1990 – 1º turno
24-6-1990TorinoBrasile 0 – 1 ArgentinaMondiali 1990 – Ottavi di finale
30-6-1990FirenzeArgentina 0 – 0 dts
(3 – 2 dcr)
 JugoslaviaMondiali 1990 – Quarti di finale
3-7-1990NapoliItalia 1 – 1 dts
(3 – 4 dcr)
 ArgentinaMondiali 1990 – Semifinale
8-7-1990RomaGermania Ovest 1 – 0 ArgentinaMondiali 1990 – Finale
18-2-1993Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 1 Brasile100º anniversario della AFA
24-2-1993Mar del PlataArgentina 1 – 1
(5 – 4 dcr)
 DanimarcaCoppa Artemio Franchi
31-10-1993SydneyAustralia 1 – 1 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 1994
17-11-1993Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 AustraliaQual. Mondiali 1994
20-4-1994SaltaArgentina 3 – 1 MaroccoAmichevole1
18-5-1994Santiago del CileCile 3 – 3 ArgentinaAmichevole
25-5-1994GuayaquilEcuador 1 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
31-5-1994Tel AvivIsraele 0 – 3 ArgentinaAmichevole
4-6-1994ZagabriaCroazia 0 – 0 ArgentinaAmichevole
21-6-1994BostonArgentina 4 – 0 GreciaMondiali 1994 – 1º turno1
25-6-1994BostonArgentina 2 – 1 NigeriaMondiali 1994 – 1º turno
TotalePresenze (10º posto)91Reti (5º posto)34
Cronologia completa delle presenze e delle reti in nazionale ― Argentina Under-20
DataCittàIn casaRisultatoOspitiCompetizioneRetiNote
16-4-1977ValenciaArgentina Under-20 1 – 1 Uruguay Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1977
18-4-1977ValenciaParaguay Under-20 2 – 1 Argentina Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1977
21-4-1977ValenciaPerù Under-20 2 – 1 Argentina Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1977
13-1-1979MontevideoArgentina Under-20 4 – 0 Perù Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1979
18-1-1979MontevideoArgentina Under-20 5 – 0 Ecuador Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1979
25-1-1979MontevideoArgentina Under-20 0 – 0 Paraguay Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1979
28-1-1979MontevideoUruguay Under-20 0 – 0 Argentina Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1979
31-1-1979MontevideoArgentina Under-20 1 – 0 Brasile Under-20Sudamericano Under-20 1979
18-8-1979Messico Under-20 1 – 2 Argentina Under-20Amichevole1
26-8-1979OmiyaArgentina Under-20 5 – 0 Indonesia Under-20Mondiali Under-20 19792
28-8-1979OmiyaJugoslavia Under-20 0 – 1 Argentina Under-20Mondiali Under-20 1979
30-8-1979OmiyaPolonia Under-20 1 – 4 Argentina Under-20Mondiali Under-20 19791
2-9-1979TokyoArgentina Under-20 5 – 0 Algeria Under-20Mondiali Under-20 19791
4-9-1979TokyoArgentina Under-20 2 – 0 Uruguay Under-20Mondiali Under-20 19791
7-9-1979TokyoArgentina Under-20 3 – 1 Unione Sovietica Under-20Mondiali Under-20 19791
Cronologia completa delle presenze e delle reti in nazionale ― Argentina Under-20
DataCittàIn casaRisultatoOspitiCompetizioneRetiNote
3-4-1977Chascomús 2 – 3 Argentina Under-20Amichevole
8-4-1977Cipolletti 1 – 2 Argentina Under-20Amichevole1
3-11-1978N.Y. Cosmos 1 – 2 Argentina Under-20Amichevole1
5-11-1978San Rafael 2 – 1 Argentina Under-20Amichevole
14-11-1978San José de Mayo 0 – 4 Argentina Under-20Amichevole2
5-12-1978Pergamino 3 – 3 Argentina Under-20Amichevole1
8-12-1978CórdobaTalleres (C) 2 – 2 Argentina Under-20Amichevole
25-7-1979TucumánAtl. Tucumán 2 – 1 Argentina Under-20Amichevole
14-11-1979ValenciaValencia  Argentina Under-20Amichevole

Statistiche da allenatore


Statistiche aggiornate al 16 maggio 2018.

StagioneSquadraCampionatoCoppe nazionaliCoppe continentaliAltre coppeTotale% VittoriePiazz.
1994-1995 Textil MandiyúA+C12156121568,33Dimiss.
1995-1996 Racing ClubA+C112361123618,18Dimiss.
2011-2012 Al-WaslUFL227510EC+CPE11+26+10+05+1CCG8512431961844,19
2017-2018 Dibba Al-FujairahUD12211110CPE2011241112145,83
Totale carriera672124221571785129033263136,67


 Argentina28 ottobre 200829 luglio 20102418064727+2075,00

Nazionale nel dettaglio

GiocateVittoriePareggiSconfitte% VittorieGFGSDR
2008 ArgentinaQual. Mondiale0000
2010MondialeQuarti di finale540180,00106+4
Dal 2008 al 2010Amichevoli11100190,91278+19
Totale Argentina24180675,004727+20

Panchine da commissario tecnico della nazionale argentina

Cronologia completa delle presenze e delle reti in nazionale ― Argentina
DataCittàIn casaRisultatoOspitiCompetizioneRetiNote
19-11-2008GlasgowScozia 0 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevoleMaxi Rodríguez
11-2-2009MarsigliaFrancia 0 – 2 ArgentinaAmichevoleJonás Gutiérrez
Lionel Messi
28-3-2009Buenos AiresArgentina 4 – 0 VenezuelaQual. Mondiali 2010Lionel Messi
Carlos Tévez
Maxi Rodríguez
Sergio Agüero
1-4-2009La PazBolivia 6 – 1 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 2010Luis González
20-5-2009Santa FeArgentina 3 – 1 PanamaAmichevoleMatías Defederico
Gonzalo Bergessio
6-6-2009Buenos AiresArgentina 1 – 0 ColombiaQual. Mondiali 2010Daniel Díaz
10-6-2009QuitoEcuador 2 – 0 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 2010
12-8-2009MoscaRussia 2 – 3 ArgentinaAmichevoleSergio Agüero
Lisandro López
Jesús Dátolo
5-9-2009RosarioArgentina 1 – 3 BrasileQual. Mondiali 2010Jesús Dátolo
9-9-2009AsunciónParaguay 1 – 0 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 2010
30-9-2009CórdobaArgentina 2 – 0 GhanaAmichevoleMartín Palermo
10-10-2009Buenos AiresArgentina 2 – 1 PerùQual. Mondiali 2010Gonzalo Higuaín
Martín Palermo
14-10-2009MontevideoUruguay 0 – 1 ArgentinaQual. Mondiali 2010Mario Bolatti
14-11-2009MadridSpagna 2 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevoleLionel Messi
26-1-2010San JuanArgentina 3 – 2 Costa RicaAmichevoleJosé Ernesto Sosa
Guillermo Burdisso
Franco Jara
10-2-2010Mar del PlataArgentina 2 – 1 GiamaicaAmichevoleMartín Palermo
Ignacio Canuto
3-3-2010Monaco di BavieraGermania 0 – 1 ArgentinaAmichevoleGonzalo Higuaín
5-5-2010Cutral-CoArgentina 4 – 0 HaitiAmichevoleFacundo Bertoglio
Martín Palermo
Sebastián Blanco
24-5-2010Buenos AiresArgentina 5 – 0 CanadaAmichevoleMaxi Rodríguez
Ángel Di María
Carlos Tévez
Sergio Agüero
12-6-2010JohannesburgArgentina 1 – 0 NigeriaMondiali 2010 – 1º turnoGabriel Heinze
17-6-2010JohannesburgArgentina 4 – 1 Corea del SudMondiali 2010 – 1º turnoautorete
Gonzalo Higuaín
22-6-2010PolokwaneGrecia 0 – 2 ArgentinaMondiali 2010 – 1º turnoMartín Demichelis
Martín Palermo
27-6-2010JohannesburgArgentina 3 – 1 MessicoMondiali 2010 – Ottavi di finaleCarlos Tévez
Gonzalo Higuaín
3-7-2010Città del CapoArgentina 0 – 4 GermaniaMondiali 2010 – Quarti di finale




Competizioni nazionali

Boca Juniors: Metropolitano 1981

Barcellona: 1983

Barcellona: 1983

Barcellona: 1983

Napoli: 1986-19871989-1990

Napoli: 1986-1987

Napoli: 1990

Competizioni internazionali

Napoli: 1988-1989


Giappone 1979

Messico 1986

Argentina 1993


1978 (22 gol), 1979 (14 gol), 1980 (25 gol)

1979 (12 gol), 1980 (18 gol)


  • Calciatore sudamericano dell’anno secondo il Centro dei Giornalisti Accreditati dalla AFA (CEPA): 3

1979, 1980, 1981

Giappone 1979

1979, 1980, 1981, 1986

  • Olimpia de Oro al Miglior Sportivo argentino dell’anno – 1979, 1986
  • Miglior calciatore sudamericano dell’anno per la rivista El Mundo, di Caracas: 6

1979, 1980, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1992




1986, 1987

1985, 1988

Guarda “Michael Jackson – Another Part of Me (Official Video)” su YouTube

I dischi d’oro e i dischi di platino sulla base delle vendite nei vari Stati del mondo:

Dischi d’oroAustralia
(vendite: oltre 35 000)
(vendite: oltre 14 928)
(vendite: oltre 100 000)
(vendite: oltre 3 000)
(vendite: oltre 7 500)

Nuova Zelanda

 Nuova Zelanda
(vendite: oltre 7 500)
(vendite: oltre 10 000)
(vendite: oltre 20 000)
(vendite: oltre 3 000)
Dischi di platinoArgentina
(vendite: oltre 40 000)
(vendite: oltre 20 000)
(vendite: oltre 30 000)
(vendite: oltre 80 000)
(vendite: oltre 30 000)
Francia (2)
(vendite: oltre 400 000)
Italia (2)
(vendite: oltre 120 000)
(vendite: oltre 20 000)
Regno Unito
(vendite: oltre 300 000)
Rep. Ceca (5)
(vendite: oltre 100 000)
Russia (2)
(vendite: oltre 40 000)
(vendite: oltre 40 000)
Stati Uniti
(vendite: oltre 1 000 000)

” Caro Montanelli ” di Cesare Marchi prefazione di Indro Montanelli

Marchi è nato a Verona, docente, scrittore, giornalista ha scritto saggi brillanti come Boccaccio, L’ aretino, Giovanni dalle bande nere, Dante, mentre i suoi articoli di costume, pubblicati da Il Giornale e da altre importanti testate, sono stati raccolti in Il delatore, Confidenze di una madrelingua. Ha conquistato i favori del pubblico, con il suo ultimo best-seller Impariamo l’ italiano.

«Una grammatica divertente, precisa nelle regole ma estroversa negli esempi, attenta alle modificazioni della lingua, severa verso barbarismi e neologismi.»(Corriere della Sera)Impariamo l’italianoAutoreCesare Marchi1ª ed. originale1984GeneresaggioSottogeneregrammaticaLingua originaleitaliano

Impariamo l’italiano è la grammatica che Cesare Marchi pubblicò nel settembre del 1984. Ebbe un enorme successo, imprevisto allo stesso autore. Pubblicata in brossura per il formato 22 cm, ebbe in breve tempo almeno 10 ristampe.

L’autore, che era stato docente ed era giornalista, si definiva nella prefazione un «”utente dell’alfabeto” che mette la sua esperienza […] a disposizione di altri “utenti dell’alfabeto”».

Il libro è diviso in tre parti:

  • Le buone regole
  • Il bello stile
  • I cattivi esempi

a loro volta suddivise in capitoli.

La lettura scorre piacevolmente, perché di fatto il libro non è scritto nella forma tipica delle grammatiche, ma unisce citazioni dotte e umorismo.

Fu l’inizio della fortuna televisiva di Marchi e lo portò alla notorietà come ospite in molte trasmissioni della Rai e poi con una rubrica personale in Almanacco del giorno dopo.



Arthur Antunes Coimbra

Zico, pseudonimo di Arthur Antunes Coimbra (Rio de Janeiro3 marzo 1953), è un dirigente sportivoallenatore di calcio ed ex calciatore brasiliano, di ruolo attaccante o centrocampista, direttore tecnico degli Kashima Antlers.

Soprannominato O Galinho (in italiano il galletto)[2][3][4][5], legò principalmente il suo nome al Flamengo e alla nazionale brasiliana, mentre in Italia è ricordato anche per la sua breve militanza nell’Udinese. Oltre ad essere stato eletto per 3 volte Calciatore sudamericano dell’anno occupa la nona posizione nella lista dei migliori 50 giocatori del XX secolo redatta dall’ IFFHS e la diciottesima posizione nella classifica dei migliori giocatori del XX secolo redatta da World Soccer.

In totale ha giocato 750 partite ufficiali segnando 516 gol[6];[la fonte riporta un numero diverso] contando anche le partite non ufficiali giocate il suo totale sale a 1180 presenze e 826 gol.[7].

Anche suo fratello Eduardo Antunes Coimbra e i suoi figli Thiago Coimbra e Junior Coimbra sono stati calciatori.[8]

” Notre -Dame de Paris ” di Victor Hugo

Introduzione di Umberto Eco , traduzione di Fabio Scotto


La festa dei folliModifica

Parigi, 6 gennaio 1482. Da tempo immemore in quel giorno vengono festeggiate due solennità: l’Epifania e la festa dei folli, quest’ultima una manifestazione popolare culminante nell’elezione del papa dei folli. Quell’anno, presso il Palazzo di Giustizia viene anche messo in scena un mistero teatrale in onore della principessa Margherita di Fiandra, scritto dallo squattrinato poeta Pierre Gringoire in occasione dell’arrivo a Parigi dell’ambasciata fiamminga. Sfortunatamente per l’autore, ben presto l’attenzione del pubblico si sposta sugli ospiti fiamminghi, uno dei quali, annoiato dalla rappresentazione teatrale, propone di organizzare una gara di smorfie allo scopo di eleggere come papa dei folli colui che avrebbe sfoggiato la smorfia più grottesca. L’idea riscuote grande successo presso gli astanti, entusiasti al punto da partecipare in massa, e la gara termina con l’elezione a papa dei folli di un inconsapevole Quasimodo, deforme campanaro della cattedrale di Notre-Dame, suo malgrado partecipe alla gara. La folla, euforica e oramai del tutto dimentica del lavoro teatrale, abbandona il Palazzo di Giustizia e si precipita nella piazza, attratta dall’esibizione di una giovane zingaraEsmeralda, assieme alla sua graziosa capretta di nome Djali.

La Corte dei MiracoliModifica

La Corte dei Miracoli in un’illustrazione di Gustave Doré per l’edizione in lingua originale del 1860.

Deluso e sconfortato Pierre Gringoire inizia a vagabondare per le strade di Parigi senza una meta fino a ritrovarsi, suo malgrado, presso la Corte dei Miracoli, quartier generale della comunità di zingari, i quali di giorno si guadagnano da vivere incantando la popolazione con trucchi e magie, o simulando false invalidità per poter chiedere l’elemosina, o semplicemente derubando; di sera, poi, si ritirano nel loro quartiere, dove ciascuno riacquista la propria reale identità. Aggirato da un gruppo di zingari, Gringoire viene condotto presso il loro capo Clopin Trouillefou, noto nella comunità gitana come “il re di Thunes”, un personaggio scaltro, carismatico e violento che, dopo un interrogatorio sommario, decide di uccidere Gringoire per aver violato gli esclusivi confini della comunità zingara (presso la Corte dei Miracoli, infatti, era di fatto vietato l’ingresso a chiunque non appartenesse alla loro comunità). A salvarlo interviene la giovane zingara Esmeralda che, pur non avendo alcun legame con lui, decide di evitargli la morte accettando di sposarlo. Viene, così, celebrato il matrimonio tra i due, secondo il rito gitano della comunità.

Esmeralda: il rapimento, il tentato omicidio e il processo inquisitorioModifica

Soltanto alcune ore prima Esmeralda era, a sua volta, scampata a un tentato rapimento compiuto da Quasimodo dietro ordine dell’arcidiacono della cattedrale di Notre-Dame, monsignor “dom” Claude Frollo, da molto tempo ossessionato da un desiderio possessivo nei confronti della zingara. Il salvataggio avviene grazie a Phoebus de Châteaupers (noto in alcune edizioni italiane come Febo), capitano degli arcieri del re, il cui intervento eroico fa innamorare perdutamente Esmeralda. Unico accusato del tentato rapimento, Quasimodo verrà messo alla gogna; nel disprezzo generale del pubblico solo la giovane zingara gli mostrerà compassione porgendogli dell’acqua da bere e questo gesto di carità lo farà innamorare di lei.

Intanto Phoebus, giovane scapestrato avvezzo alle facili avventure amorose, consapevole dell’infatuazione della zingara per lui, riesce a convincere Esmeralda ad un incontro “romantico” in una locanda. Prima di giungere all’appuntamento Phoebus si scontra con “dom” Frollo, il quale riesce ad estorcergli i dettagli dell’appuntamento, convincendolo anche a lasciarlo assistere di nascosto all’incontro amoroso. Ma una volta giunti alla locanda, ancora prima che il rapporto tra i due giovani amanti si consumi, l’arcidiacono Frollo, fuori di sé per la gelosia esce dal nascondiglio e pugnala il capitano; credendo di averlo ucciso scappa dalla finestra, deciso a far ricadere sulla zingara le accuse dell’omicidio. Phoebus, in realtà sopravvissuto, decide di fuggire senza lasciare notizie di sé, timoroso che un suo coinvolgimento nell’affare possa danneggiare gli accordi di matrimonio da tempo presi con una giovane nobildonna di nome Fleur-de-Lys (nota in alcune edizioni italiane come Fiordaliso).

Esmeralda viene sottoposta a processo inquisitorio; qui in un primo momento si rifiuta di parlare, se non per proclamare la sua innocenza o per chiedere notizie dell’amato Phoebus, ma poi la terribile tortura dello stivaletto finisce con il farle confessare qualunque falsa accusa mossa contro di lei. La sentenza diventa a quel punto inevitabile: impiccagione per omicidio, a cui si aggiunge anche il capo d’accusa di stregoneria (grazie alla testimonianza della padrona della locanda in cui era avvenuto il presunto omicidio, che affermava di aver visto entrare nella stanza tre persone – attribuendo l’identità del terzo individuo al diavolo – e la presunta trasformazione del denaro ricevuto da Phoebus in una foglia secca, quando in realtà la moneta era stata scambiata da un ragazzino lì presente; inoltre il fatto di avere una capretta addomesticata – animale identificato nella cultura di massa con il diavolo – con cui si esibiva le aveva attirato già in passato maldicenze di stregoneria).

Il rifugio nella cattedrale di Notre-DameModifica

Nelle segrete della prigione dove viene rinchiusa, Esmeralda riceve la visita di monsignor Frollo che, rivelatole il suo amore per lei e i suoi intricati piani per possederla, ivi compreso l’omicidio di Phoebus, le offre la possibilità di salvarle la vita in cambio del suo amore. Esmeralda, disgustata, rifiuta l’accordo, preferendo piuttosto morire e raggiungere così l’amato, creduto morto.

Mentre viene portata al patibolo, nel momento in cui il corteo dell’esecuzione passa davanti alla cattedrale di Notre-Dame, Quasimodo si cala dalla balaustra della cattedrale e porta in salvo l’amata zingara all’interno dell’edificio, consapevole dell’impunità a cui avevano diritto tutti i condannati rifugiati tra le mura sacre delle chiese (diritto che neanche il parlamento poteva violare, salvo rare eccezioni). Il tempo trascorso assieme a Quasimodo dà modo a Esmeralda di conoscere il carattere buono e generoso dell’essere deforme, che si dimostra sempre rispettoso nei suoi confronti, perfino devoto, arrivando al punto di proteggerla dai reiterati tentativi di monsignor Frollo di possederla.

Nel frattempo il gitano Clopin Trouillefou organizza, assieme all’intera comunità zingara, un assalto alla cattedrale per liberare Esmeralda dalla detenzione forzata, ma il re di Francia Luigi XI viene indotto a scambiare il gesto per una rivolta popolare mossa contro la sua regia autorità e la sua persona; dà ordine, perciò, a un manipolo di soldati di violare i confini sacri della cattedrale per catturare la zingara e impiccarla pubblicamente, come dimostrazione del proprio potere, sperando così di sedare la rivolta e placare i sediziosi. Allo stesso tempo Quasimodo, che scambia le reali intenzioni degli zingari per un tentativo di uccidere l’amata Esmeralda, tenta di rintuzzare l’attacco gettando pietre, travi e piombo fuso dall’alto della chiesa, arrivando anche, spinto da una cieca rabbia, a uccidere brutalmente un uomo che era riuscito a raggiungerlo, senza rendersi conto che quell’uomo era Jean du Moulin, fratello dell’arcidiacono Frollo. Al contempo i soldati del re lanciano una pioggia di frecce contro gli zingari, sterminandoli in massa. Clopin rimane ucciso e i gitani superstiti fuggono.

La madre ritrovata e l’esecuzione della condannaModifica

Nella confusione generatasi Frollo, dilaniato da un lato dalla cieca passione nei confronti della zingara e dall’altro dal desiderio di vendicarsi per il suo ferreo rifiuto di concederglisi, decide di fare un ultimo tentativo e la libera, ma solo per portarla davanti al patibolo di place de La Grève e costringerla a scegliere tra lui e la forca. Di fronte all’ennesimo categorico rifiuto di Esmeralda, dom Frollo decide di chiamare le guardie regie per vendetta e trascina, intanto, la giovane al Buco dei Ratti (una cella senza aperture dove si rifugiavano spontaneamente coloro che volevano espiare dei peccati); qui la affida a sorella Gudule, la detenuta volontaria della cella che tanto odiava la comunità zingara per averle rapito quindici anni prima la figlia di appena pochi mesi. Nei brevi momenti passati insieme, in attesa dell’arrivo delle guardie, sorella Gudule confida alla ragazza il motivo dell’astio nei suoi confronti, rivelandole la storia della figlia rapita e mostrandole l’unico ricordo che le rimaneva di lei: una scarpina rosa da neonato. Del tutto incredula Esmeralda mostra a sua volta il contenuto di un amuleto che porta sempre al collo e che dice essere l’unico legame con sua madre: proprio una scarpina rosa da neonato del tutto identica a quella mostratale dalla donna. La verità sulla faccenda viene così svelata: Esmeralda si chiama in realtà Agnès, figlia della prostituta Paquette Guybertaut “la Chantefleurie” (la sorella Gudule della cella), rapita dagli zingari quando aveva pochi mesi, i quali l’avevano scambiata nella culla con il piccolo deforme Quasimodo; questi, poi, per impedire che cominciassero le ricerche per il ritrovamento della piccola, avevano inscenato un sacrificio umano, facendo credere a tutti che la bambina fosse morta, quando invece era stata portata all’interno della comunità gitana e cresciuta come un loro membro.

La felicità del reciproco ritrovamento viene ben presto smorzata dall’ineluttabilità degli eventi e dalla condanna a morte ancora pendente sulla giovane gitana. Nonostante i maldestri tentativi della madre di nasconderla alle guardie portandola all’interno della cella, Esmeralda viene scoperta e portata di peso sul patibolo, assieme alla madre, rimasta aggrappata a lei. Qui la madre muore in un estremo tentativo di ribellione, mentre la giovane Agnès-Esmeralda viene impiccata, sotto gli occhi attenti e soddisfatti dell’arcidiacono Frollo, che osserva impassibile la scena dalla cima della torre di Notre-Dame. Nel frattempo Quasimodo, accecato da un’irrefrenabile rabbia per la consapevolezza del ruolo che il suo benefattore Frollo aveva avuto in tutta la faccenda fino al tragico finale, scaraventa l’arcidiacono al di là della balaustra, facendolo precipitare.

La fineModifica

Il romanzo finisce con la spiegazione di quanto successo ai personaggi in seguito: il re muore di morte naturale, mentre Phoebus, completamente guarito dalla ferita provocatagli da Frollo, totalmente indifferente alla vicenda e senza alcun senso di colpa, si sposa con la ricca Fleur-de-Lys. Per quello che riguarda la sorte di Quasimodo, invece, il romanzo spiega che una volta raggiunto il corpo esanime dell’amata zingara (accatastato assieme agli altri cadaveri presso il sotterraneo di Montfaucon) si sdraia al suo fianco e si lascia morire, in un eterno ultimo abbraccio. La scena, denominata significativamente Il matrimonio di Quasimodo, viene così descritta:

«[…] si trovarono fra tutte quelle carcasse orrende due scheletri di cui uno teneva l’altro stranamente abbracciato. Uno dei due scheletri, che era di donna, aveva ancora qualche brandello di veste di una stoffa che era stata bianca, e gli si vedeva intorno al collo una collanina di semi di azedarach con un sacchettino di seta, ornato di pietre verdi, aperto e vuoto. Quegli oggetti erano di così scarso valore che il boia probabilmente non aveva saputo che farsene. L’altro, che teneva il primo strettamente abbracciato, era uno scheletro d’uomo. Si notò che aveva la colonna vertebrale deviata, la testa incassata tra le scapole, e una gamba più corta dell’altra. Non presentava d’altronde alcuna frattura vertebrale alla nuca, ed era evidente che non era stato impiccato. L’uomo al quale era appartenuto quello scheletro era dunque venuto in quel luogo, e lì era morto. Quando si volle staccarlo dallo scheletro che stringeva, andò in polvere.»

” Santa Maradona ” di Marco Ponti premio Donatello come miglior regista e miglior attore non protagonista Libero de Rienzo con Stefano Accorsi

Una produzione RAI Cinema Mikado


Andrea Straniero, laureato in lettere, 27 anni, è l’emblema di una generazione ricca di insicurezze, che passa da un colloquio di lavoro all’altro con scarsi successi. Il ragazzo vive in un appartamento a Torino con il suo amico Bartolomeo Vanzetti “Bart”, con il quale condivide la monotonia di tutti i giorni. Bart, dal canto suo, si definisce critico letterario, ma in realtà si fa mandare le recensioni da un cugino in Sicilia per inoltrarle al giornale una volta firmate: di fatto passa le giornate a poltrire. I due hanno anche un’amica, Lucia, di origini italo-indiane, fidanzata con Marco: un ragazzo egocentrico e presuntuoso che pare ostentare una sicurezza solo di facciata. Ragion per cui Bart, da cinico e indolente, non perde occasione per suggerire all’amica di lasciarlo.

Andrea e Bart vivono di espedienti. Talvolta si dilettano a rubare nei negozi per provare quel brivido che sembra mancare alle loro giornate. Un tempo vivevano con un terzo amico, Pier, in viaggio da molti mesi (tornerà improvvisamente a casa in stato incosciente per le troppe droghe prese), ma senza di lui la casa è troppo costosa: perciò, prima di uscire, devono sempre controllare che il minaccioso proprietario non sia appostato per riscuotere gli affitti arretrati. Andrea e Bart sono estremamente appassionati di calcio, cinema e lettura.

Correndo all’ennesimo colloquio, Andrea si scontra con Dolores, giovane attrice di teatro e maestra, da cui rimane folgorato. Casualmente la reincontra tempo dopo: lei è sfuggente ma lui riesce a rintracciarla. Tra i due nasce una storia d’amore, fin quando lei confessa di essere andata a letto con il regista di uno spettacolo teatrale a cui aspirava, ma due giorni prima di conoscere Andrea. Il ragazzo la lascia immediatamente, ma Bart tenta di fargli capire l’errore: la ragazza non l’ha tradito, anzi, è positivo che abbia confessato il gesto e Andrea sbaglia a concentrarsi su un particolare insignificante di Dolores perdendosi la spettacolarità della persona.

Nel frattempo Andrea riesce a superare due colloqui di lavoro per una grossa azienda. Una sera, in discoteca rivede Dolores: i due si baciano, ma Andrea è ancora arrabbiato e si separano nuovamente. Al colloquio finale ripensa all’incontro: mentre il direttore creativo gli propone un lavoro a Roma, Andrea rifiuta per poter rimettere a posto il rapporto con Dolores.

La scena finale vede lo sfogo di Andrea con Bart. Il primo è completamente disilluso dalla vita monotona che li affligge, il secondo sottolinea che più di tanto non si può fare, ma una cosa è certa: Andrea sta subendo questa monotonia a cui dovrebbe mettere fine tornando da Dolores. I due litigano violentemente, anche perché il rimprovero arriva proprio da Bart, emblema dell’accidia. Alla fine Andrea accetterà di “rimettere a posto le cose” in un finale aperto.

Film ” Soul ” PIXAR di Pete Doctcer

Soul: la recensione del film Pixar



Il quarantenne Joe Gardner ha una buona ragione per voler tornare indietro dall’aldilà: sta morendo per una caduta in un tombino, proprio a un passo dalla sua consacrazione musicale di jazzista, mancata la quale non gli rimarrà che ripiegare sul posto fisso da insegnante di musica che sua madre vuole accetti. Quando per un equivoco viene assegnato come mentore a un’anima ribelle che proprio non vuole saperne del mondo e di nascere, intravede un escamotage…

Chi abbia amato Monsters & CoUp e Inside Out di Pete Docter, attenderà Soul con una trepidazione che condividiamo in pieno: è bene tuttavia ricordare che oltre all’autore Docter, c’è quella miracolosa autorialità collettiva che si chiama Pixar, di cui non a caso lo stesso Docter si è trovato direttore creativo. Mai come con Soul sembrano simbolicamente frullate e riproposte, per giunta con freschezza, le tematiche che attraversano la creatività in quel di Emeryville da venticinque anni. Ricordate “Questo non è volare, è cadere con stile!” di Buzz in Toy Story? Joe, il protagonista di Soul, è uno che sogna di volare e il “cadere con stile” non riesce ad accettarlo affatto: è incalcolabile il bene che ha fatto la Pixar agli spettatori nel rendere centrale quest’etica, che non va mai confusa con uno sconfitto elogio della mediocrità. Joe, come molti personaggi pixariani, parte in realtà più mediocre di quanto pensi, e la svolta avviene quando impara a pensare fuori dagli schemi: il percorso verso questo allargamento di orizzonte è incarnato da questi umili eroi, però finisce pure per modificare uno status quo insufficiente alla complessità dell’esperienza umana. L’esperienza del singolo apre gli occhi degli altri: la fiaba diventa epica. In Monsters & Co la paura non bastava più, in Up una casa non bastava per elaborare il lutto, in Inside Out una felicità perenne era impotente ad assicurare equilibrio alla vita. In Soul, il discorso è esponenzialmente più complesso, di coraggio difficile da descrivere.

E lo fa con un film sbalorditivo sul controllo del piano formale, forse più dello stesso Inside Out, perché Docter e la sua squadra giustappongono la realtà di Joe con la fantasia grafica dell’aldilà. Nella prima cercano di tenere sotto controllo gli eccessi di stilizzazione cartoon (la fotografia è realistica, ma anche la dialettica cinematografica è quella di una normale commedia in live action). Nella dimensione surreale dell’aldilà-limbo si abbandonano invece a sfide grafiche sofisticate, come gli impiegati “Jerry”, che sembrano una versione tridimensionale del Mr. Linea di Osvaldo Cavandoli. Docter esce perfino dalla proverbiale “comfort zone”, tirando in gioco per le musiche la coppia Trent Reznor – Atticus Ross, ottenendo specialmente nell’aldilà sonorità ipnotiche (e vagamente inquietanti) mai azzardate .

Tutto questo, si diceva, è al servizio di un messaggio più chiaro di quanto possa sembrare, nei mille spunti che la sceneggiatura offre: se Inside Out attaccava il culto della felicità ottusa, Soul attacca il culto dell’accanimento, dell’identificarsi con un’ossessione, il chiodo fisso che nelle tante “storie di successo” sembra la chiave per raggiungere l’appagamento e non scoprirsi – orrore – “perdenti” a quarant’anni. Nel contesto, la satira sui mentori, pur indiscutibilmente illustri, è di un’intelligenza abbagliante. Soul ci dice che adottare la strategia dell’ossessione per l’arte non porta a nessun coronamento della propria esistenza: l’arte è proprio un’altra cosa e, senza alcuna remora e con un entusiasmo davanti al quale emettere giudizi da recensione suona quasi offensivo, gli autori di Soul propongono che la nostra stessa esistenza lo sia, a patto di avere la forza di accorgersene. Soul intrattiene e sospende il tempo come tanti grandi film sanno fare, non per imporre sermoni, quanto per condividere con lo spettatore un percorso di riflessione e scoperta, artistica ed esistenziale (appunto, non c’è differenza).

Probabilmente chi trovò Inside Out troppo contorto e programmatico, più cerebrale che emotivo, non sarà esaltato come noi, che invece non solo amiamo al di là della ragione il precedente film di Docter, ma lo consideriamo quasi un “primo atto” di un discorso che prosegue in Soul, concentrato su un’età differente. Se proprio volessimo mantenerci severi, a volte in Soul l’emozione si sgancia quando gli autori devono spiegarci il funzionamento del loro mondo di fantasia, e lo svolgimento della storia non è di certo il trionfo dell’imprevedibilità. Attenti però: cercando per principio la critica per contestare chi griderà al capolavoro, rischiate di non notare che Docter e i suoi tra una gag e l’altra, in una tenerezza che profuma di Frank Capra, parlano di mortedestinoaspirazionifrustrazionilegami familiaritempo che passa (come al solito, per la Pixar), stuporeassenze. Usano persino un espediente narrativo già visto come uno degli ingranaggi del tutto, quando altri ci costruirebbero un film intero. E creano da zero un limbo-aldilà miscelando convenzioni religiose e satira aziendale.

Yoga di Gabriella Al-Chamali

108 esercizi o posizioni, o asana corredate da disegni, fotografie che ne semplificano l’ esecuzione tra cui le rinomate: sequenza di saluto alla luna, alla terra, al sole, al cielo all’ acqua, a sīta e rāma, di undici uccelli e una foglia, a Kundalinī, dei dodici gesti di purificazione, dei dodici gesti della pace, le dodici posizioni della forza

Gabriella Cella Al- Chamali maestro yoga della The yoga Vadanta Forest Academy Himalayas India , membro del comitato studi e ricerche sulla medicina psicosomatica dell’ Istituto RIZA Milano

Manuali Sonzogno

” Crocodile Dundee “

Una giornalista di New York giunge nella savana per intervistare un famoso cacciatore. Il genuino Dundee la stupisce e la donna decide di portarlo con sé nella Grande Mela, dove l’uomo continua a vivere come un selvaggio.Prima data di uscita: 24 aprile 1986 (Australia)Regista: Peter FaimanSerie cinematografiche: Crocodile DundeeScritto da: Paul HoganMusica composta da: Peter Best

Il vinile originale Original Soundtrack con musica di Peter Best remixata da Doug Brady per la Silva Records by Reynold da Silva, registrato a Melbourne, Sydney e Londra il ” Theme “

Il trailer ufficiale

Quello in tedesco

Tutto il sequel II in lingua tedesca

” Pelè ” io l’ unico re Mondadori libri, l’ autobiografia

Edison Arantes do Nascimento nato il 23/10/40 a Três Corações in Brasile, ha giocato nel Santos e nel Cosmos di New York.

Ha segnato complessivamente 1283 reti e la sua ultima partita, è stata il 31 ottobre 1990 amici di Pelé contro Brasile .

Da pagina 254 si legge: ” Certe volte mi chiedo cosa ne avrebbe pensato Bilé, il portiere del São Lourenço, che giocava con mio padre.

Esisterei ancora se non ci fosse stato lui? Solo di recente sono venuto a sapere che morì parecchi anni fa all’ età di cinquantatreanni . I suoi amici dicono che era orgoglioso di sapere che il mio nome, Pelé, aveva avuto origine dal suo. Lui fa indiscutibilmente parte della mia vita, della mia storia. Spero che risposi in pace.

Ma che tipo di persona sono io? Pelé, lo dico sempre, non ha colore, razza, religione. È accettato dappertutto. E Edson? Be’ sono brasiliano e noi siamo gente tranquilla, e con un gran spirito. Sono quasi sempre di buon umore. I miei amici vi diranno che quando non giocavo a calcio ero da qualche parte a divertirmi. […] Invecchiando spesso diventiamo un po’ estremisti, e i nostri desideri cominciano a tramutarsi in esigenze insopprimibili. “

Con Gareincha

Competizioni statali

Santos: 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1973

Santos: 195919631964,[122]1966[123]

Santos: 1968

Competizioni nazionali

Santos: 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968[124]

Santos: 19611962196319641965

New York Cosmos: 1977

Competizioni internazionali

Santos: 19621963

Santos: 19621963

Santos: 1968


Maglia autografata di Pelè al Museo del calcio di Coverciano

Svezia 1958; Cile 1962; Messico 1970;

1957, 1963

1958, 1962, 1968




Svezia 1958

1957 (36 gol), 1958 (58 gol, record per il Campionato Paulista), 1959 (45 gol), 1960 (33 gol), 1961 (47 gol), 1962 (37 gol), 1963 (22 gol), 1964 (34 gol), 1965 (49 gol), 1969 (26 gol), 1973 (11 gol)

1961(7 gol)1964(7 gol)

1963 (14 gol)

1965(8 gol)

Argentina 1959(8 gol)






  • Calciatore del secolo della FIFA:

2000 (con Diego Armando Maradona)

  • Patrimonio storico-sportivo dell’umanità del Brasile: 2011
  • Pallone d’oro FIFA – Prix d’Honneur: 2013

” L’ anno della scimmia ” di Patti Smith

Patti Smith è scrittrice, performer e visual artist.

Ha raggiunto la fama negli anni 70 per il suo modo rivoluzionario di fondere il rock e poesia.Ha pubblicato 12 album tra cui Horses , classificato da Rolling Stonestra i cento album migliori di tutti i tempi. Il suo memori Just Kids ha vinto nel 2010 il National Book Award per la sezione non fiction. Di Patti Smith Bompiani ha pubblicato Mar dei Coralli 1996, I tessitori di sogni 2013, M Train 2016 e Devotion 2018

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. For other persons of the same name, see Patricia Smith (disambiguation).

Patti Smith
Smith performing at Provinssirock festival in SeinäjokiFinland, June 2007
Background information
Birth namePatricia Lee Smith
BornDecember 30, 1946 (age 73)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
OriginDeptford Township, New Jersey, U.S.
GenresPunk rock[1]art punk[2]proto-punk[3]art rock[4]
Occupation(s)Singer-songwriterpoetvisual artistauthor
Years active1967–present
Associated actsTom VerlaineBlue Öyster Cult

Patricia Lee Smith (born December 30, 1946)[5] is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, and poet who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock movement with her 1975 debut album Horses.[1]

Called the “punk poet laureate”, Smith fused rock and poetry in her work. Her most widely known song is “Because the Night“, which was co-written with Bruce Springsteen. It reached number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1978[1] and number five in the U.K. In 2005, Smith was named a Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Ministry of Culture.[6] In 2007, she was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[7]

On November 17, 2010, Smith won the National Book Award for her memoir Just Kids.[8] The book fulfilled a promise she had made to her former long-time roommate and partner, Robert Mapplethorpe. She placed 47th in Rolling Stone magazine’s list of 100 Greatest Artists published in December 2010[9] and was also a recipient of the 2011 Polar Music Prize.


Life and career[edit]

1946–1967: Early life[edit]

Patricia Lee Smith was born in 30 December 1946 at Grant Hospital of Chicago in Chicago[5][10]to Beverly Smith, a jazz singer turned waitress, and Grant Smith, who worked as a machinist at a Honeywell plant.[11] The family was of part Irish ancestry[12] and Patti was the eldest of four children, with siblings Linda, Kimberly, and Todd.[13] At the age of 4, Smith’s family moved from Chicago to Germantown, Philadelphia,[14] before heading to Pitman, New Jersey[15] and later to The Woodbury Gardens section of Deptford Township, New Jersey.[16][17]

At this early age Smith was exposed to her first records, including Shrimp Boats by Harry BelafontePatience and Prudence‘s The Money Tree, and Another Side of Bob Dylan, which her mother gave to her. Smith graduated from Deptford Township High School in 1964 and went to work in a factory.[1][18] She gave birth to her first child, a daughter, on April 26, 1967, and chose to place her for adoption.[18]

1967–1973: New York[edit]

In 1967, she left Glassboro State College (now Rowan University) and moved to New York City‘s Manhattan. She met photographer Robert Mapplethorpe there while working at a bookstore with friend and poet Janet Hamill. She and Mapplethorpe had an intense romantic relationship, which was tumultuous as the pair struggled with times of poverty, and Mapplethorpe with his own sexuality. Smith considers Mapplethorpe to be one of the most important people in her life, and in her book Just Kids refers to him as “the artist of my life.” Mapplethorpe’s photographs of her became the covers for the Patti Smith Group albums, and they remained lifelong friends until Mapplethorpe’s death in 1989.[19] Her book and album The Coral Sea would be an homage to the life of Mapplethorpe and Just Kids would tell the story of their relationship. She would also write essays for several of Mapplethorpe’s books, starting from one, at his request, for his posthumous Flowers.[20]

She went to Paris with her sister in 1969, and started busking and doing performance art.[16] When Smith returned to Manhattan, she lived in the Hotel Chelsea with Mapplethorpe; they frequented Max’s Kansas City and CBGB. Smith provided the spoken word soundtrack for Sandy Daley’s art film Robert Having His Nipple Pierced, starring Mapplethorpe. The same year Smith appeared with Wayne County in Jackie Curtis‘s play Femme Fatale. Afterward, she also starred in Tony Ingrassia‘s play Island. As a member of the St. Mark’s Poetry Project, she spent the early 1970s painting, writing, and performing. In 1971 she performed – for one night only – in Cowboy Mouth,[21] a play that she co-wrote with Sam Shepard. (The published play’s notes call for “a man who looks like a coyote and a woman who looks like a crow”.) She wrote several poems, “for sam shepard”[22] and “Sam Shepard: 9 Random Years (7 + 2)”[23] about her relationship with Shepard.

Smith was briefly considered for the lead singer position in Blue Öyster Cult. She contributed lyrics to several of the band’s songs, including “Debbie Denise” (inspired by her poem “In Remembrance of Debbie Denise”), “Baby Ice Dog”, “Career of Evil”, “Fire of Unknown Origin“, “The Revenge of Vera Gemini” (on which she performs duet vocals), and “Shooting Shark”. She was romantically involved at the time with the band’s keyboardist, Allen Lanier. During these years, Smith also wrote rock journalism pieces, some of which were published in Rolling Stone and Creem.[24]

1974–1979: Patti Smith Group[edit]

Smith performing at Cornell University, 1978

By 1974, Patti Smith was performing rock music, initially with guitarist, bassist and rock archivist Lenny Kaye, and later with a full band comprising Kaye, Ivan Kral on guitar and bass, Jay Dee Daugherty on drums and Richard Sohl on piano. Kral was a refugee from Czechoslovakia who had moved to the United States in 1966 with his parents, who were diplomats. After the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, he decided not to return.[25] Financed by Sam Wagstaff, the band recorded a first single, “Hey Joe / Piss Factory“, in 1974. The A-side was a version of the rock standard with the addition of a spoken word piece about fugitive heiress Patty Hearst (“Patty Hearst, you’re standing there in front of the Symbionese Liberation Army flag with your legs spread, I was wondering were you gettin’ it every night from a black revolutionary man and his women …”).[26] A court later heard that Hearst had been confined against her will, and had been repeatedly threatened with execution and raped.[27] The B-side describes the helpless anger Smith had felt while working on a factory assembly line and the salvation she discovered in the form of a shoplifted book, the 19th century French poet Arthur Rimbaud‘s Illuminations.[1] In a 1996 interview which discusses artistic influences during her younger years, Smith said, “I had devoted so much of my girlish daydreams to Rimbaud. Rimbaud was like my boyfriend.”[28]Smith performing with the Patti Smith Group, in West Germany, 1978

Later that same year, she performed spoken poetry on “I Wake Up Screaming” from Ray Manzarek‘s The Whole Thing Started with Rock & Roll Now It’s Out of Control album.

The Patti Smith Group was signed by Clive Davis of Arista Records, and in 1975 recorded their first album, Horses, produced by John Cale amid some tension. The album fused punk rock and spoken poetry and begins with a cover of Van Morrison‘s “Gloria“, and Smith’s opening words: “Jesus died for somebody’s sins but not mine” (an excerpt from “Oath”, one of her early poems). The austere cover photograph by Mapplethorpe has become one of rock’s classic images.[29] As the popularity of punk rock grew, Patti Smith Group toured the United States and Europe. The rawer sound of the group’s second album, Radio Ethiopia, reflected this. Considerably less accessible than HorsesRadio Ethiopia initially received poor reviews. However, several of its songs have stood the test of time, and Smith still performs them regularly in concert.[30] She has said that Radio Ethiopia was influenced by the band MC5.[28]

On January 23, 1977, while touring in support of Radio Ethiopia, Smith accidentally danced off a high stage in Tampa, Florida, and fell 15 feet into a concrete orchestra pit, breaking several neck vertebrae.[31]

The injury required a period of rest and an intensive round of physical therapy, during which time she was able to reassess, re-energize and reorganize her life. Patti Smith Group produced two further albums before the end of the 1970s. Easter (1978) was her most commercially successful record, containing the single “Because the Night” co-written with Bruce SpringsteenWave (1979) was less successful, although the songs “Frederick” and “Dancing Barefoot” both received commercial airplay.[32]

1980–1995: Marriage[edit]

Smith with her daughter Jesse Smith at the 2011 Time 100 gala

Before the release of Wave, Smith, now separated from long-time partner Allen Lanier, met Fred “Sonic” Smith, former guitar player for Detroit rock band MC5 and his own Sonic’s Rendezvous Band, who adored poetry as much as she did. Wave‘s “Dancing Barefoot” (inspired by Jeanne Hébuterne and her tragic love for Amedeo Modigliani) and “Frederick” were both dedicated to him.[33] The running joke at the time was that she married Fred only because she would not have to change her name.[34] They had a son, Jackson (b. 1982) who would go on to marry The White Stripes drummer, Meg White in 2009;[35] and a daughter, Jesse Paris, who is also a musician and composer[36] (b. 1987).

Through most of the 1980s Smith was in semi-retirement from music, living with her family north of Detroit in St. Clair Shores, Michigan. In June 1988, she released the album Dream of Life, which included the song “People Have the Power“. Fred Smith died on November 4, 1994, of a heart attack. Shortly afterward, Patti faced the unexpected death of her brother Todd.[16]

When her son Jackson turned 14, Smith decided to move back to New York. After the impact of these deaths, her friends Michael Stipe of R.E.M. and Allen Ginsberg (whom she had known since her early years in New York) urged her to go back out on the road. She toured briefly with Bob Dylan in December 1995 (chronicled in a book of photographs by Stipe).[21]

1996–2003: Re-emergence[edit]

In 1996, Smith worked with her long-time colleagues to record Gone Again, featuring “About a Boy”, a tribute to Kurt Cobain. That same year she collaborated with Stipe on “E-Bow the Letter“, a song on R.E.M.’s New Adventures in Hi-Fi, which she has also performed live with the band.[37] After the release of Gone Again, Patti Smith recorded two new albums: Peace and Noise in 1997 (with the single “1959“, about the invasion of Tibet) and Gung Ho in 2000 (with songs about Ho Chi Minh and Smith’s late father). Songs “1959” and “Glitter in Their Eyes” were nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance.[38] A box set of her work up to that time, The Patti Smith Masters, came out in 1996, and 2002 saw the release of Land (1975–2002), a two-CD compilation that includes a cover of Prince‘s “When Doves Cry“. Smith’s solo art exhibition Strange Messenger was hosted at The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh on September 28, 2002.[39]


On April 27, 2004, Patti Smith released Trampin’ which included several songs about motherhood, partly in tribute to Smith’s mother, who had died two years before. It was her first album on Columbia Records, soon to become a sister label to her previous home Arista Records. Smith curated the Meltdown festival in London on June 25, 2005, the penultimate event being the first live performance of Horses in its entirety.[40] Guitarist Tom Verlaine took Oliver Ray’s place. This live performance was released later in the year as Horses/Horses.Smith performing at Primavera Sound Festival (2007)

On July 10, 2005, Smith was named a Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Ministry of Culture.[6] In addition to Smith’s influence on rock music, the Minister also noted her appreciation of Arthur Rimbaud. In August 2005, Smith gave a literary lecture about the poems of Arthur Rimbaud and William Blake. On October 15, 2006, Patti Smith performed at the CBGB nightclub, with a 3½-hour tour de force to close out Manhattan‘s music venue. She took the stage at 9:30 p.m. (EDT) and closed for the night (and forever for the venue) at a few minutes after 1:00 am, performing her song “Elegie”, and finally reading a list of punk rock musicians and advocates who had died in the previous years.[41]

Smith was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 12, 2007.[7] She dedicated her award to the memory of her late husband, Fred, and gave a performance of The Rolling Stones staple “Gimme Shelter“. As the closing number of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, Smith’s “People Have the Power” was used for the big celebrity jam that always ends the program.[42]

From November 2006 to January 2007, an exhibition called ‘Sur les Traces’[43] at Trolley Gallery, London, featured polaroid prints taken by Patti Smith and donated to Trolley to raise awareness and funds for the publication of Double Blind, a book on the war in Lebanon in 2006, with photographs by Paolo Pellegrin, a member of Magnum Photos. She also participated in the DVD commentary for Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters. From March 28 to June 22, 2008, the Fondation Cartier pour l’Art Contemporain in Paris hosted a major exhibition of the visual artwork of Patti Smith, Land 250, drawn from pieces created between 1967 and 2007.[44] At the 2008 Rowan Commencement ceremony, Smith received an honorary doctorate degree for her contributions to popular culture.Smith with National Book Critics Circle President Jane Ciabattari and NBCC board member John Reed. Smith’s memoir Just Kids was an NBCC autobiography finalist at the 2010 awards.[45]

Smith is the subject of a 2008 documentary film by Steven Sebring titled Patti Smith: Dream of Life.[46] A live album by Patti Smith and Kevin ShieldsThe Coral Sea was released in July 2008. On September 10, 2009, after a week of smaller events and exhibitions in the city, Smith played an open-air concert in Florence’s Piazza Santa Croce, commemorating her performance in the same city 30 years earlier.[47] In the meantime, she contributed with a special introduction to Jessica Lange‘s book 50 Photographs (2009).[48]


Smith’s book, Just Kids, a memoir of her time in 1970s Manhattan and her relationship with Robert Mapplethorpe, was published in 2010; it later won the National Book Award for Nonfiction.[8][49] In 2018 a new edition with many added photographs and illustrations was published. She also headlined a benefit concert headed by bandmate Tony Shanahan, for The Court Tavern of New Brunswick.[50] Smith’s set included “Gloria”, “Because the Night” and “People Have the Power.” She has a brief cameo in Jean-Luc Godard‘s 2010 Film Socialisme, which was first screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival.[51]

In 2012 Patti Smith received an honorary doctorate in fine arts from Pratt Institute, along with architect Daniel LibeskindMoMA director Glenn Lowry, former NYC Landmarks Commissioner Barbaralee Diamonstein-Spielvogel, novelist Jonathan Lethem, and director Steven Soderbergh.[52] Following the conferral of her degree, Smith delivered the commencement address[53] and sang/played two songs accompanied by long-time band member Lenny Kaye. In her remarks, Smith explained that in 1967 when she moved to New York City (Brooklyn), she would never have been accepted into Pratt, but most of her friends (including Mapplethorpe) were students at Pratt and she spent countless hours on the Pratt campus. She added that it was through her friends and their Pratt professors that she learned much of her own artistic skills, making the honor from the institute particularly poignant for Smith 43 years later.[54]

Patti Smith was one of the winners of the 2011 Polar Music Prize.[55] She made her television acting debut at the age of 64 on the TV series Law & Order: Criminal Intent, appearing in an episode called “Icarus”.[56] In 2011 Smith was working on a crime novel set in London. “I’ve been working on a detective story that starts at the St Giles in the Fields church in London for the last two years”, she told NME adding that she “loved detective stories” having been a fan of British fictional detective Sherlock Holmes and U.S. crime author Mickey Spillane as a girl.[57] Part of the book will be set in Gothenburg, Sweden.[58]

Following the death of her husband in 1994, Smith began devoting time to what she terms “pure photography” (a method of capturing still objects without using a flash).[59] In 2011, Smith announced the first museum exhibition of her photography in the United States, Camera Solo. She named the project after a sign she saw in the abode of Pope Celestine V, which translates as “a room of one’s own”, and which Smith felt best described her solitary method of photography.[59] The exhibition featured artifacts which were the everyday items or places of significance of artists whom Smith admires, including RimbaudBaudelaireKeats and Blake. In February 2012, she was a guest at the Sanremo Music Festival.[60]

Smith recorded a cover of Buddy Holly‘s classic “Words of Love” for the CD Rave on Buddy Holly, a tribute album tied to Holly’s seventy-fifth birthday year which was released June 28, 2011.[61] She also recorded the song “Capitol Letter” for the official soundtrack of the second film of the Hunger Games-series The Hunger Games: Catching Fire.[62]

Smith’s 11th studio album, Banga, was released in June 2012. Music Journalist Hal Horowitz wrote : “These songs aren’t as loud or frantic as those of her late 70s heyday, but they resonate just as boldly as she moans, chants, speaks and spits out lyrics with the grace and determination of Mohammad Ali in his prime. It’s not an easy listen—the vast majority of her music never has been—but if you’re a fan and/or prepared for the challenge, this is as potent, heady and uncompromising as she has ever gotten, and with Smith’s storied history as a musical maverick, that’s saying plenty.”[63] The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded the album a score of 81, indicating “universal acclaim”.[64]

Also in 2012 Patti Smith recorded the cover of Io come persona by the Italian singer-songwriter Giorgio Gaber, translated into English “I as a person”, contained in the anthological album …io ci sono.[65][66]Patti Smith performing at Haldern Pop 2014

In 2015, Adult Swim offered Smith the opportunity to perform a song to commemorate the series finale of Aqua Teen Hunger Force. Smith, an avowed fan of the series, recorded the song “Aqua Teen Dream” with the help of her children and band. The vocal track was recorded in a hotel overlooking Lerici‘s Bay of Poets.[67] On September 26, 2015, Smith performed during the American Museum of Tort Law convocation ceremony.[68]

In 2016 Smith performed “People Have the Power” at Riverside Church, Manhattan, to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Democracy Now. She was joined by Michael Stipe. On December 10, 2016, Smith attended the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm on behalf of Bob Dylan, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, who himself could not be present due to prior commitments. After the official presentation speech for the literary prize by Horace Engdahl, a member of the Swedish Academy, Smith sang the Dylan song “A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall“. Possibly overcome by nerves she sang “I saw the babe that was just bleedin’”, the wrong words to the second verse and became unable to continue.[69] She stopped, and after a brief apology, resumed the song, which earned her a jubilant applause at the end.[70][71]

In 2017, Smith appeared as herself in Song to Song directed by Terrence Malick, opposite Rooney Mara and Ryan Gosling.[72][73] She later made an appearance at the Detroit show of U2’s The Joshua Tree 2017 tour and performed “Mothers of the Disappeared” with the band.[74]

In 2018, Smith’s concert-documentary film Horses: Patti Smith and her Band premiered at the 2018 Tribeca Film Festival to wide acclaim.[75] In addition, Smith narrated in Darren Aronofsky’s VR experience Spheres: Songs of Spacetime alongside Millie Bobby Brown and Jessica Chastain.[76]

In 2019, Smith performed her anthem “People Have the Power” with Stewart Copeland and Choir! Choir! Choir! at Onassis Festival 2019: Democracy Is Coming, co-presented by The Public Theatre and Onassis USA. Later that year she released her latest book, Year of the Monkey.[77] “A captivating, redemptive chronicle of a year in which Smith looked intently into the abyss.” stated Kirkus Reviews.[78]

Smith is set to receive the International Humanities Prize from Washington University in St. Louis in November 2020.[79]


Performing at TIM Festival, Rio de Janeiro (2006)

Smith has been a great source of inspiration for Michael Stipe of R.E.M. Listening to her album Horses made a huge impact on him; he said later, “I decided then that I was going to start a band.”[80]

In 1998, Stipe published a collection of photos called Two Times Intro: On the Road with Patti Smith. Stipe sings backing vocals on Smith’s songs “Last Call” and “Glitter in Their Eyes.” Smith sang background vocals on R.E.M.’s songs “E-Bow the Letter” and “Blue“.[81]

The Australian alternative rock band, The Go-Betweens dedicated a track (“When She Sang About Angels”) off their 2000 album, The Friends of Rachel Worth, to Smith’s long-time influence.[82]

In 2004, Shirley Manson of Garbage spoke of Smith’s influence on her in Rolling Stone‘s issue “The Immortals: 100 Greatest Artists of All Time”, in which Patti Smith was counted number 47.[83] The Smiths members Morrissey and Johnny Marr share an appreciation for Smith’s Horses, and revealed that their song “The Hand That Rocks the Cradle” is a reworking of one of the album’s tracks, “Kimberly”.[84] In 2004, Sonic Youth released an album called Hidros 3 (to Patti Smith).[85] U2 also cites Patti Smith as an influence.[86] In 2005 Scottish singer-songwriter KT Tunstall released the single “Suddenly I See” as a tribute of sorts to Patti Smith.[87] Canadian actress Ellen Page frequently mentions Smith as one of her idols and has done various photo shoots replicating famous Smith photos, as well as Irish actress Maria Doyle Kennedy who often refers to Smith as a major influence.[88] In 1978 and 1979, Gilda Radner portrayed a character called Candy Slice on Saturday Night Live based on Smith.

Alternative rock singer-songwriter Courtney Love of Hole heavily credited Smith as being a huge influence on her; Love received Smith’s album Horses in juvenile hall as a teenager, and “realized that you could do something that was completely subversive that didn’t involve violence [or] felonies. I stopped making trouble,” said Love. “I stopped.”[89] Hole’s classic track “Violet” features the lyrics “And the sky was all violet / I want it again, but violent, more violent”, alluding to lyrics from Smith’s “Kimberly”.[90] Love later stated that she considered “Rock n Roll Nigger” the greatest rock song of all time.[91]

American pop singer Madonna has also named Smith as one of her biggest influences.[92]

Anglo-Celtic rock band The Waterboys‘ debut single, “A Girl Called Johnny“, was written as a tribute to Smith.[93]

In 2018, the English band Florence and the Machine dedicated the High as Hope album song “Patricia” to Smith. The lyrics reference Patricia as Florence Welch’s “North Star”.[94]

Canadian country musician Orville Peck cited Smith as having had a big impact on him, stating that Smith’s album Horses introduced him to a new and different way to make music.[95]


Patti Smith on the Defence of the Earth – Paradiso, 2018)

In 1993, Smith contributed “Memorial Tribute (Live)” to the AIDS-Benefit Album No Alternative produced by the Red Hot Organization.

Smith was a supporter of the Green Party and backed Ralph Nader in the 2000 United States presidential election.[96] She led the crowd singing “Over the Rainbow” and “People Have the Power” at the campaign’s rallies, and also performed at several of Nader’s subsequent “Democracy Rising” events.[97] Smith was a speaker and singer at the first protests against the Iraq War as U.S. President George W. Bush spoke to the United Nations General Assembly. Smith supported Democratic candidate John Kerry in the 2004 electionBruce Springsteen continued performing her “People Have the Power” at Vote for Change campaign events. In the winter of 2004–2005, Smith toured again with Nader in a series of rallies against the Iraq War and called for the impeachment of Bush.[96]

Smith premiered two new protest songs in London in September 2006.[98] Louise Jury, writing in The Independent, characterized them as “an emotional indictment of American and Israeli foreign policy”. The song “Qana[99] was about the Israeli airstrike on the Lebanese village of Qana. “Without Chains”[100] is about Murat Kurnaz, a Turkish citizen who was born and raised in Germany, held at Guantanamo Bay detainment camp for four years. Jury’s article quotes Smith as saying:

I wrote both these songs directly in response to events that I felt outraged about. These are injustices against children and the young men and women who are being incarcerated. I’m an American, I pay taxes in my name and they are giving millions and millions of dollars to a country such as Israel and cluster bombs and defense technology and those bombs were dropped on common citizens in Qana. It’s terrible. It’s a human rights violation.

In an interview, Smith stated that Kurnaz’s family has contacted her and that she wrote a short preface for the book that he was writing.[101] Kurnaz’s book, Five Years of My Life, was published in English by Palgrave Macmillan in March 2008, with Patti’s introduction.[102]

On March 26, 2003, ten days after Rachel Corrie‘s death, Smith appeared in Austin, Texas, and performed an anti-war concert. She subsequently wrote a song “Peaceable Kingdom” which was inspired by and is dedicated to Rachel Corrie.[103] In 2009, in her Meltdown concert in Festival Hall, she paid homage to the Iranians taking part in post-election protests by saying “Where is My Vote?” in a version of the song “People Have the Power”.[104]

In 2015, Smith appeared with Nader, spoke and performed the songs “Wing” and “People Have the Power” during the American Museum of Tort Law convocation ceremony in Winsted, Connecticut.[105] Smith spoke, read poetry, and performed several songs accompanied by her daughter Jesse at Nader’s Breaking Through Power conference at DAR Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C.[106]

A long-time supporter of Tibet House US, she performs yearly at their benefit at Carnegie Hall.[107][108][109][110][111]

In 2020, Smith contributed signed first-edition copies of her books to the Passages bookshop in Portland, Oregon, after the store was burgled of a number of valuable first-edition and other books by various authors. She did so after reading about the burglary and its impact on the owner, stating that she “loves bookstores.”[112]



Smith was raised a Jehovah’s Witness and had a strong religious upbringing and a Bible education. She left organized religion as a teenager because she felt it was too confining. In response to this experience, she wrote the line “Jesus died for somebody’s sins, but not mine” in her cover version of “Gloria” by Them.[113] She has described having an avid interest in the Islamic mysticism of Sufism, saying “I was drawn to the mosques and the Koran of Muhammad.[114] In 2019 Smith released Mummer Love, a collaborative album made in tribute to poet Arthur Rimbaud and the Islamic practice.[115] Smith has also said that as an adult she sees clear parallels between different forms of religion, and has come to the conclusion that religious dogmas are “… man-made laws that you can either decide to abide by or not.”[28]

Feminism and women in music[edit]

According to biographer Nick Johnstone, Smith has often been “revered” as a “feminist icon”,[116] including by The Guardian journalist Simon Hattenstone in a 2013 profile on the musician.[117]

In 2014, Smith offered her opinion on the sexualization of women in music. “Pop music has always been about the mainstream and what appeals to the public. I don’t feel it’s my place to judge.” As at points earlier in her life and career, she declined to embrace politicized feminism: “I have a son and a daughter, people always talk to me about feminism and women’s rights, but I have a son too—I believe in human rights.”[118]

In 2015, writer Anwen Crawford observed that Smith’s “attitude to genius seems pre-feminist, if not anti-feminist; there is no democratizing, deconstructing impulse in her work.”[119]

Band members[edit]


  • Patti Smith – vocals, guitar (1974–1979, 1988, 1996–present)
  • Lenny Kaye – guitar (1974–1979, 1996–present)
  • Jackson Smith – guitar (2016–present)
  • Tony Shanahan – bass guitar, keyboards (1996–present)
  • Jay Dee Daugherty – drums (1975–1979, 1988, 1996–present)


  • Richard Sohl – keyboards (1974–1977, 1979, 1988)
  • Ivan Král – bass guitar (1975–1979)
  • Bruce Brody – keyboards (1977–1978)
  • Fred “Sonic” Smith – guitar (1988)
  • Kasim Sulton – bass guitar (1988)
  • Oliver Ray – guitar (1996–2005)
  • Jack Petruzzelli – guitar (2006–2016)



Main article: Patti Smith discographyStudio albums



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  6. Jump up to:a b “Remise des insignes de Commandeur dans l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres à Patti Smith ‘Solidays'” (in French). Paris: French Ministry of Culture. July 10, 2005. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  7. Jump up to:a b “Patti Smith profile”. Cleveland, Ohio: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
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  116. ^ Johnstone, Nick (2012). “Introduction”. Patti Smith: A Biography. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0857127780.
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  118. ^ Ella Alexander (April 2, 2014). “Patti Smith, self-confessed Rihanna fan, on the sexualisation of women in music: ‘No one should allow themselves to be exploited'”The Independent. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  119. ^ Anwen Crawford (October 6, 2015). “The Theology of Patti Smith”The New Yorker. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  120. ^ Ulin, David L. “Review: Patti Smith’s M Train reckons with life, while Collected Lyrics shows her living energy as words“, Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
  121. ^ Devotion. Why I Write. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. 2017. ISBN 9780300218626OCLC 989978146Devotion at Google Books

Further reading[edit]

Guarda “Working Girl Trailer” su YouTube

La mia registrazione della sigla della colonna sonora del film Working Girl featuring by Carly Simon

Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor, pilot, and environmental activist. As of 2019, the U.S. domestic box office grosses of his films total over $5.1 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $9.3 billion,[1] placing him at No. 4 on the list of highest-grossing domestic box office stars of all time.[2] In addition to his box office success, he is also an Academy Award nominee, a four-time Golden Globe nominee, a two-time Saturn Award winner, and the recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award and the Cecil B. DeMille Award.Harrison FordFord in June 2019BornJuly 13, 1942 (age 78)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Occupation

  • Actor
  • pilot
  • environmental activist

Years active1966–presentWorksFull listSpouse(s)


Melanie Richards Griffith[3] (born August 9, 1957) is an American actress and film producer. She began her career in the 1970s, appearing in several independent thriller films before achieving mainstream success in the mid-1980s.Melanie GriffithGriffith in 2016BornMelanie Richards Griffith
August 9, 1957 (age 63)
ManhattanNew York, U.S.EducationHollywood Professional SchoolOccupation

  • Actress
  • film producer

Years active1969–presentHeight5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)[1]Political partyDemocratic[2]Spouse(s)Don Johnson
(m. 1976; div. 1976)
(m. 1989; div. 1996)
Steven Bauer
(m. 1981; div. 1989)
Antonio Banderas
(m. 1996; div. 2015)Children3, including Dakota JohnsonParent(s)Peter Griffith (father)
Tippi Hedren (mother)RelativesTracy Griffith (paternal sister)

Melanie Griffith
Harrison Ford

Claude Monet

1862–1871 Paris. Visits to Trouville (1870), London and Amsterdam (1871)
1870 Marriage to Camille Doncieux.
1871–1878 Family life in Argenteuil, near Paris. Visit to Amsterdam (1874)
1878 Living in Paris – Birth of Michel Monet
1878–1881 Living at Vétheuil, 60 km north-west of Paris. Visit to Fécamp.
1879 Death of Camille
1881–1883 Living at Poissy, 25 km north-west of Paris.
1883 Living at Vernon, Normandy
1883–1926 Living at Giverny, 80 km north west of Paris. Visits to Bordighera (1884), Holland (1886), Belle Île (1886), Antibes (1888), Creuse (1889), Rouen (1892, 1893, 1894), Norway (1895), London (1900), Venice (1908)
1892 Marriage to Alice Hoschedé
1926 Death

” Il guardiano dei coccodrilli ” di Katrine Engberg

Ognuno di noi ha dei segreti, ma a volte i segreti sono bugie. Dalla Danimarca, il primo romanzo della serie di Copenhagen, un thriller sul potere della scrittura e della fantasia ad alto tasso di adrenalina.

«Che fantastico esordio! Adoro i personaggi, lo stile frizzante e le descrizioni di Copenaghen. Katrine Engberg è una star assoluta!» – Camilla Läckberg

«L’omicidio è intrigante, i personaggi taglienti, la città bellissima, in tutte le sue contraddizioni» – Publishers Weekly

«Un’appassionante novità nel pantheon del giallo scandinavo» – O, The Oprah Magazine

Chi poteva mettersi a scrivere su quella cartella se non l’assassino? Gli omicidi e il romanzo dovevano per forza essere inscindibilmente legati fra loro.

Davanti al corpo tagliuzzato di Julie, giovane studentessa trovata morta nel suo appartamento, la polizia di Copenaghen non ha risposte: la sola traccia lasciata dall’assassino sembra essere il misterioso disegno, simile a un origami, che la lama di un coltello ha inciso sul viso della ragazza. A guidare le indagini è l’investigatore Jeppe Kørner, affiancato da Anette Werner: lui – con l’aria del classico sbirro separato – in profonda crisi di autostima, lei energica e dirompente, sempre di buonumore. La loro attenzione si concentra sulla padrona di casa, che vive al terzo piano della stessa graziosa palazzina in cui è stato rinvenuto il cadavere, nel centro storico della capitale danese. Docente di letteratura in pensione con la tendenza a organizzare scintillanti cene mondano-artistiche, Esther de Laurenti si rivela infatti essere un’aspirante scrittrice di gialli. E, curiosamente, l’omicidio di cui si legge nel manoscritto a cui sta lavorando ricalca esattamente le modalità con cui è stata uccisa la sua inquilina. Un collegamento tra finzione e realtà troppo clamoroso perché possa essere ignorato. Con la leggerezza e l’ironia che la contraddistinguono, Katrine Engberg è la sorprendente rivelazione del poliziesco scandinavo, di cui rinnova la tradizione con una voce fresca, la ricchezza emotiva e psicologica dei suoi personaggi, i colpi di scena e una profonda sensibilità nel ritrarre gli abissi dell’animo e i destini umani.

Guarda “RENATO ZERO “PRENDIMI”” su YouTube

Muffin al burro senza limone

Muffin al limone senza burro

I muffin al limone sono dei dolcetti profumati facili da preparare con un occhio alla linea, questa versione è infatti senza burro. Sono ideali per una colazione meravigliosa o una deliziosa merenda.

Come preparare i muffin al limone senza burro

Un’amica di Buonissimo ci svela il segreto della sua ricetta originale inglese dei Muffin al limone senza burro.Di: Zia Lesley per la rubrica #ricettedifamigliaMuffin al limone senza burroVAI ALLA RICETTA PER IMMAGINI 

  • DOSI:6
  • TEMPO:30 min di preparazione20 min di cottura